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Temporal trend of bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone, methylsulfonyl-DDE andd -PCB in Baltic guillemot (Uria aalge) egg 1971-2001 - A comparison to 4,4'-DDE and PCB trends
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
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2006 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, Vol. 141, no 2, 226-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 141, no 2, 226-237 p.
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-25684DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.08.054OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-25684DiVA: diva2:200244
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-8419Available from: 2009-01-15 Created: 2009-01-15 Last updated: 2010-01-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Temporal and spatial trends of organohalogens in guillemot (Uria aalge) from North Western Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal and spatial trends of organohalogens in guillemot (Uria aalge) from North Western Europe
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Arctic and sub-Arctic region of the North Atlantic is a remote area, also in relations to environmental contaminants, such as POPs, BFRs and last but not least, PFCs. Both the BFRs and PFCs are considered emerging pollutants of significant environmental concern.

The main objective of this thesis is to increase the knowledge and understanding of organohalogen compound distribution in the Nordic environment, their occurrence in biota and change over time. The temporal change of environmental contaminants in the Baltic Sea was monitored over the years 1971 to 2001, with emphasis on BCPS. Further, the pollution profile of the Nordic region was investigated by using common guillemot eggs. Further, to investigate a single remote site, Iceland, in more depth, eggs from seven marine bird species were collected and analysed. Both the organohalogen compounds mentioned above and their metabolites were investigated. The study focused also on an inter-species difference in the bird’s capability of metabolising xenobiotics.

All environmental pollutants investigated in the Baltic Sea show decreasing levels over the time period investigated. BCPS showed a remarkably small change over time compared to other compounds. These results reinforce the previous findings, indicating the North Atlantic as remote where the concentrations of the organohalogens are lower compared to Europe in general. There are some exceptions however; the concentration of HCB is ubiquitously distributed across the study area. Further, the spatial trends of the PFCs are complicated and differ within the PFC group. When comparing bird species from Iceland, the concentration of organohalogens mainly depends on trophic level, while migration seems to contribute to a lesser extent. There are some similarities in the metabolism between the bird species investigated. However, the guillemot seems to distinguish itself from other marine birds, with a different composition of metabolites, indicating a different metabolic capacity.

In conclusion, even human populations living in remote areas need to minimise the release of pollutants to the environment. Long term, well organised, and extensive governmental monitoring programs are highly recommended to follow the quality the environment and to detect any immediate and/or new threats of chemical pollutants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi, 2009. 72 p.
Keyword
Arctic, environmental, monitoring, pollution, time trends, spatial trends
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-8419 (URN)978-91-7155-736-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-02-06, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-01-15 Created: 2009-01-15Bibliographically approved
2. Bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone and PCB methyl sulfone metabolites: Trends and chirality in the Baltic Sea environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone and PCB methyl sulfone metabolites: Trends and chirality in the Baltic Sea environment
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Baltic Sea was earlier identified as a highly polluted brackish water body and still is. The high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p’-DDT and related compounds led to severe effects on several species in the Baltic region. However, the situation has improved significantly since the 1970’s resulting in lower exposures to a range of pollutants and healthier wildlife populations. Independent of this positive trend there are still new chemicals leaking into the Baltic Sea environment. The objective of this thesis is to improve the knowledge of sulfone containing compounds and pollutant metabolites in wildlife, with special interest in bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS) distribution, temporal trend and exposure levels, and the methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs). The latter are of particular interest for chiral MeSO2-PCBs. BCPS is used for the production of high temperature polymers and was detected as an environmental contaminant ten years ago. PCBs, p,p’-DDT and related compounds are still of scientific interest.

BCPS is biomagnified and especially in the bird guillemot which has levels of up to 2000 ng BCPS/g fat compared to the grey seal with concentrations of about 60 ng/g fat. The seal levels are similar to the herring, the prey of the bird and seal, with concentrations of 30 ng BCPS/g fat. The guillemot concentration of BCPS has been similar over the last 30 years with a minimal, but significant, annual decline of 1.6%. The reason for the slow decline is not yet understood. Also MeSO2-PCBs and 3-MeSO2-DDE show a small decrease over time in guillemot egg (3 and 9%, respectively), which is less then for the parent compounds. This shows that the sulfone metabolites are more persistent than their precursors in the guillemot. Furthermore, all these sulfone containing compounds showed a specific retention to liver comparing different tissues in grey seal. The atropisomers of the chiral MeSO2-PCB were analysed in both the guillemot and the grey seal and showed to occur in a skewed relationship. This is particularly pronounced in seals where one atropisomer of each chiral congener is very dominating. The dominating atropisomers have been identified with an absolute R configuration, in both grey seal and guillemot. An enantioselective metabolism was indicated to occur when experimentally tested by CB-132 in rat.

This thesis is stressing the high specificity in wildlife for one atropisomer in the pair of chiral PCB methyl sulfones being PCB metabolites, and the high BCPS concentrations in guillemot hatching in the Baltic proper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Institutionen för miljökemi, 2006. 69 p.
Keyword
bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone, PCB methyl sulfone, Baltic Sea
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-983 (URN)91-7155-203-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-05-12, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-04-20 Created: 2006-04-20 Last updated: 2010-01-08Bibliographically approved

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