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The aerodynamics of the MAGIC meteoric smoke sampler
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.
2007 (English)In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 40, no 6, 818-824 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The detection of nanometre-sized meteoric smoke particles in the Earth’s mesosphere and lower thermosphere is difficult. The particles are too small for optical detection and so far only the charged fraction of the particles has been probed by rocket-borne instruments. One way to obtain maximum information about the smoke particles is direct sampling with rocket-borne particle samplers. The MAGIC project (Mesospheric Aerosol – Genesis, Interaction and Composition) aims to quantitatively answer fundamental questions about the properties of smoke in the atmosphere. The first launch of such particle samplers was performed during the MAGIC rocket campaign from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2005. In order to characterise the sampling process, we have performed simulations of the trajectories of nanometre-sized dust particles towards the MAGIC detectors with a new particle motion model. An important feature of this model is the Brownian motion of the particles due to thermal collisions of the gas molecules. As a result, we obtain the detection efficiency for the MAGIC detectors as a function of altitude and particle size. Our simulations confirm that particles of radii down to 0.75 nm impact on the sampling surface with an efficiency exceeding 80% over the entire mesospheric altitude range of interest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 40, no 6, 818-824 p.
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-25698DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2007.06.046ISI: 000253589700012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-25698DiVA: diva2:200305
Note
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-8462Available from: 2009-01-29 Created: 2009-01-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Rocket-borne in situ measurements in the middle atmosphere
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rocket-borne in situ measurements in the middle atmosphere
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere in the altitude range 50-130 km is a fascinating part of our atmosphere. Complex interactions between radiative, dynamical, microphysical and chemical processes give rise to several prominent phenomena, many of those centred around the mesopause region (80-100 km). These phenomena include noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, the ablation and transformation of meteoric material, and the Earth’s airglow. Strong stratification and small scale interactions are common features of both these phenomena and the mesopause region in general. In order to study interactions on the relevant spatial scales, in situ measurements from sounding rockets are essential for mesospheric research.

This thesis presents new measurement techniques and analysis methods for sounding rockets, thus helping to improve our understanding of this remote part of the atmosphere. Considering the need to perform measurements at typical rocket speeds of 1 km/s, particular challenges arise both from the design of selective, sensitive, well-calibrated instruments and from perturbations due to aerodynamic influences. This thesis includes a quantitative aerodynamic analysis of impact and sampling techniques for meteoric particles, revealing a distinct size discrimination due to the particle flow. Optical techniques are investigated for mesospheric ice particle populations, resulting in instrument concepts for accessing smaller particles based on Mie scattering at short ultraviolet wavelengths. Rocket-borne resonance fluorescence measurements of atomic oxygen are critically re-assessed, leading to new calibration concepts based on photometry of O2 airglow emissions.

The work presented here also provides important pre-studies for the upcoming PHOCUS rocket campaign from Esrange in July 2010. PHOCUS will address the interaction between three major mesospheric players: meteoric smoke, noctilucent clouds and gas-phase chemistry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU), 2009. 59 p.
Keyword
rocket measurements, noctilucent clouds, meteoric smoke, nightglow, mesosphere, aerodynamics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-8462 (URN)978-91-7155-813-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-02-20, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-01-29 Created: 2009-01-22Bibliographically approved

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