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Evolutionary history of the butterfly subfamily Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

I present an overview of the evolutionary history of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). By using Bayesian and cladistic methods, I develop a phylogenetic hypothesis as a basis for studying the evolutionary history of the group. After estimating ages of origin and diversification for clades of interest, I show evidence for a radiation of a highly species-rich group of grass feeders in Satyrinae —the tribe Satyrini— which explains in part the high diversity of this group. The timing of diversification for Satyrini butterflies coincided with the spread of grasses throughout the globe, which was followed by spread of the butterflies and colonization of new emerging habitats made available by the change in global climate during the Oligocene that facilitated the spread of grasses. Such a dispersal of Satyrinae was the result of a habitat shift from closed, forested environments into open, grasslands and savannas, which became increasinly common since the Oligocene. Such dispersal of Satyrinae was facilitated by the appearance of geographic bridges that permitted ancestral migrations from the Palaearctic into North America and from North to South America, such as the continuous forest belt of Beringia (at 31 Mya and 14–10 Mya) and the temporary GAARlandia landspan (during 35–33 Mya). Thus, I show that the Satyrinae butterflies are such a highly diverse and distributed worldwide group of organisms thanks to many factors that were of crucial importance in their evolution. Intrisic factors such as evolution of adaptive traits and phylogenetic constrains, as well as exogenous contingencies such as climate change and geological events. Thus, in this thesis I show strong evidence that Satyrinae is so species-rich because they were able to feed on grasses, escape from living in dicotyledonous forests and start inhabiting grasslands and savannas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University , 2009. , 24 p.
Keyword [en]
hostplant use, habitat shift, diversity, grasses, biogeography, phylogeny
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-8507ISBN: 978-91-7155-810-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-8507DiVA: diva2:200391
Public defence
2009-03-13, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 8 C, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2009-02-19 Created: 2009-02-05 Last updated: 2011-03-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 40, no 1, 29-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have inferred the first empirically supported hypothesis of relationships for the cosmopolitan butterfly subfamily Satyrinae. We used 3090 base pairs of DNA from the mitochondrial gene COI and the nuclear genes EF-1alpha and wingless for 165 Satyrinae taxa representing 4 tribes and 15 subtribes, and 26 outgroups, in order to test the monophyly of the subfamily and elucidate phylogenetic relationships of its major lineages. In a combined analysis, the three gene regions supported an almost fully resolved topology, which recovered Satyrinae as polyphyletic, and revealed that the current classification of suprageneric taxa within the subfamily is comprised almost completely of unnatural assemblages. The most noteworthy findings are that Manataria is closely related to Melanitini; Palaeonympha belongs to Euptychiina; Oressinoma, Orsotriaena and Coenonympha group with the Hypocystina; Miller's (1968). Parargina is polyphyletic and its components group with multiple distantly related lineages; and the subtribes Elymniina and Zetherina fall outside the Satyrinae. The three gene regions used in a combined analysis prove to be very effective in resolving relationships of Satyrinae at the subtribal and tribal levels. Further sampling of the taxa closely related to Satyrinae, as well as more extensive sampling of genera within the tribes and subtribes for this group will be critical to test the monophyly of the subfamily and establish a stronger basis for future biogeographical and evolutionary studies.

National Category
Biological Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-19479 (URN)10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.007 (DOI)16563805 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-11-12 Created: 2007-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Prehistorical climate change increased diversification of a group of butterflies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prehistorical climate change increased diversification of a group of butterflies
2008 (English)In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 4, 274-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-14715 (URN)10.1098/rsbl.2008.0062 (DOI)000255503000014 ()
Available from: 2008-10-28 Created: 2008-10-28 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. The radiation of Satyrini butterflies (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): a challenge for phylogenetic methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The radiation of Satyrini butterflies (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): a challenge for phylogenetic methods
2011 (English)In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 161, no 1, 64-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have inferred the most comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis to date of butterflies in the tribe Satyrini. In order to obtain a hypothesis of relationships, we used maximum parsimony and model-based methods with 4435 bp of DNA sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear genes for 179 taxa (130 genera and eight out-groups). We estimated dates of origin and diversification for major clades, and performed a biogeographic analysis using a dispersal–vicariance framework, in order to infer a scenario of the biogeographical history of the group. We found long-branch taxa that affected the accuracy of all three methods. Moreover, different methods produced incongruent phylogenies. We found that Satyrini appeared around 42 Mya in either the Neotropical or the Eastern Palaearctic, Oriental, and/or Indo-Australian regions, and underwent a quick radiation between 32 and 24 Mya, during which time most of its component subtribes originated. Several factors might have been important for the diversification of Satyrini: the ability to feed on grasses; early habitat shift into open, non-forest habitats; and geographic bridges, which permitted dispersal over marine barriers, enabling the geographic expansions of ancestors to new environ- ments that provided opportunities for geographic differentiation, and diversificatio

Keyword
Bayesian, biogeography, diversity. grasses, habitat shift, host plants, likelihood, parsimony
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-28419 (URN)10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00627.x (DOI)000276661200003 ()
Available from: 2009-06-17 Created: 2009-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Biogeographic history of the subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogeographic history of the subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)
2010 (English)In: Zoologica Scripta, ISSN 0300-3256, E-ISSN 1463-6409, Vol. 39, 243-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The diverse butterfly subtribe Euptychiina was thought to be restricted to the Americas. However, there is mounting evidence for the Oriental Palaeonympha opalina being part of Euptychiina and thus a disjunct distribution between it (in eastern Asia) and its sister taxon (in eastern North America). Such a disjunct distribution in both eastern Asia and eastern North America has never been reported for any butterfly taxon. We used 4447 bp of DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene and four nuclear genes for 102 Euptychiina taxa to obtain a phylogenetic hypothesis of the subtribe, estimate dates of origin and diversifica- tion for major clades and perform a biogeographic analysis. Euptychiina originated 31 Ma in South America. Early Euptychiina dispersed from North to South America via the tem- porary connection known as GAARlandia during Eocene–Oligocene times. The current disjunct distribution of the Oriental Palaeonympha opalina is the result of a northbound dis- persal of a lineage from South America into eastern Asia via North America. The common ancestor of Palaeonympha and its sister taxon Megisto inhabited the continuous forest belt across North Asia and North America, which was connected by Beringia. The closure of this connection caused the split between Palaeonympha and Megisto around 13 Ma and the severe extinctions in western North America because of the climatic changes of the Late Miocene (from 13.5 Ma onwards) resulted in the classic ‘eastern Asia and eastern North America’ disjunct distribution.

Keyword
molecular clock, nymphalidae, phylogeny, systematics, taxonomy
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-55195 (URN)10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00421.x (DOI)
Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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