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Escape flight in butterflies
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Flight is considered to be the overarching reason for the enormous diversity and world-wide abundance of insects. Not only does flight enable great distances to be covered and new areas to be colonised, flying has also evolved to be important in most adult life-history characteristics from reproduction to anti-predator strategies. However, despite its advantages, the costs of flight are high, particularly with regard to building a flight apparatus and staying in the air. Winged insects are popular prey for various predators from which they rely on flight to escape. However, because of their nutrient poor adult diet, butterflies are especially sensitive to the trade-off between flight and reproduction. Theory therefore predicts costs of physiological changes such as weight gain to be visible through altered aerial performance. Whereas insect flight has been extensively studied with regard to biomechanics, aerodynamics, dispersal and force production, little effort has been made to empirically study the relationship between escape strategies and weight loading, despite its value for survival and fitness. In this thesis a novel three-dimensional flight-recording set-up was used to study free flight ability in relation to natural weight loads in male and female Aglais urticae and Pieris napi butterflies. Weight loads consisted of ingested food, mate-carrying and reproductive mass, affecting wing loading and flight muscle ratio, key determinants of flight ability. Moreover, butterfly escape strategies were investigated through the use of model predators. The results showed that perceived predation risk affected butterfly flight behaviour, with greater speed being observed in attacked butterflies. Decreased flight muscle ratio after feeding resulted in slower escape flights in A. urticae, and impaired flight during mate-carrying in P. napi. Increased wing loading during reproduction in P. napi negatively affected male flight speed and female take-off angles. In summary, this thesis demonstrates that flight effort is context dependant and shows a trade-off between flight ability and longevity- and fitness related weight gain that may ultimately affect survival, mating success and energy expenditure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University , 2009. , 17 p.
Keyword [en]
Flight, Lepidoptera, gamete load, lipid accumulation, predation risk, hibernation
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-25968ISBN: 978-91-7155-837-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-25968DiVA: diva2:201214
Public defence
2009-04-03, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-03-12 Created: 2009-03-03 Last updated: 2009-03-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Impaired escape flight ability in butterflies due to low flight muscle ratio prior to hibernation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired escape flight ability in butterflies due to low flight muscle ratio prior to hibernation
2008 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 211, no 1, 24-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-16410 (URN)10.1242/jeb.008219 (DOI)000251628000012 ()
Available from: 2008-03-31 Created: 2008-03-31 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
3. The downfall of mating: the effect of mate-carrying and flight muscle ratio on the escape ability of a pierid butterfly
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The downfall of mating: the effect of mate-carrying and flight muscle ratio on the escape ability of a pierid butterfly
2009 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 63, no 3, 413-420 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-26182 (URN)10.1007/s00265-008-0675-4 (DOI)000261955100011 ()
Available from: 2009-03-11 Created: 2009-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4.
The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.

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