HIV infection and risk behaviour of primary fentanyl and amphetamine injectors in Tallinn, Estonia: Implications for intervention
2009 (English)In: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 21, no 1, 56-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background Following a heroin shortage, fentanyl and 3-methylfentanyl, known as “China White” and “White Persian”, have become the most widely used drugs, along with amphetamine, among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia.
Methods In order to assess the relationships between the injection of fentanyl and amphetamine, and levels of HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, 350 current IDUs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling for an interviewer-administered unlinked cross-sectional survey and HIV testing. IDUs were categorised into groups based on self-report of the main drug used within the last 28 days.
Results 77% (256/331) of participants reported fentanyl and 23% (75/331) amphetamine as their main drug of injection. HIV prevalence was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.45–35.51) and 62% (95% CI: 56.97–67.03) among amphetamine and fentanyl injectors, respectively. After adjustment, fentanyl injectors had three times the odds of being HIV positive (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.55–5.39). They also had higher odds for injecting in the street with a previously used needle/syringe (AOR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14–5.04) and sharing a needle/syringe with somebody known to have HIV (AOR = 3.00, 95% CI: 1.33–6.79). Fentanyl injectors also had higher odds for lifetime overdose (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.65–5.54).
Conclusion The injection of fentanyl is associated with elevated injecting risk behaviour derived from injection practice and situational risk factors, and needs urgently targeted interventions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 21, no 1, 56-63 p.
Injecting drug use HIV, Fentanyl, Amphetamine, 3-Methylfentanyl, Risk behaviour
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-25982DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.02.007ISI: 000273908000009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-25982DiVA: diva2:201379
authorCount :92009-03-042009-03-042010-12-22Bibliographically approved