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Tools for Evaluating the Fate and Bioaccumulation of Organic Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). (Environmental Modelling of Contaminants)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems has been a key focus in environmental toxicology over the last decades. Bioaccumulation is a key concept in ecological risk assessments since it controls the internal dose of potential environmental contaminants. Information on the bioaccumulation of contaminants is used by regulatory authorities in the development of water quality standards, categorizing substances that are potential hazards and quantifying the risk of chemicals to human health. A basis for identifying priority chemicals has been the use of the octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) as a criterion to estimate bioaccumulation potential. However, recognizing that the bioaccumulation process is not controlled by the hydrophobicity of a chemical alone, this thesis proposes a set of tools, incorporating chemical properties, environmental characteristics and physiological properties of organisms, to study the bioaccumulation of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

 In striving to achieve this objective, a tool based on an equilibrium lipid partitioning approach was used in Paper I to evaluate monitoring data for bioaccumulation of organic contaminants. In Papers II and III, mechanistic based modelling tools were developed to describe bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds in aquatic food webs. In Paper IV, the bioaccumulation of organic compounds in aquatic food chains was studied using stable isotopes of nitrogen. The mechanistic fate and food web models developed in this thesis provide regulators and chemical manufacturers with a means of communicating scientific information to the general public and readily applicable mechanistic fate and food web models that are easily modified for evaluative assessments purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2009. , 59 p.
Keyword [en]
Baltic Sea, Biomagnification, Exposure, Food web, Fugacity model, Stable isotopes, Organic contaminants
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-26383ISBN: 978-91-7155-814-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-26383DiVA: diva2:209015
Public defence
2009-04-24, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 8 C, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-02 Created: 2009-03-23 Last updated: 2009-04-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Interpreting time trends and biomagnification of PCBs in the Baltic region using the equilibrium lipid partitioning approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interpreting time trends and biomagnification of PCBs in the Baltic region using the equilibrium lipid partitioning approach
2006 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, Vol. 144, 994-1000 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-26501 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.042 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-03-31 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2009-03-31Bibliographically approved
2. Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web
2007 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, Vol. 148, 73-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Environmental science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-10247 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2006.11.033 (DOI)000246978900008 ()
Available from: 2007-12-23 Created: 2007-12-23 Last updated: 2009-03-26Bibliographically approved
3. Influence of submerged aquatic vegetation on the fate and food web transfer of pesticides in small freshwater ecosystems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of submerged aquatic vegetation on the fate and food web transfer of pesticides in small freshwater ecosystems
2009 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

A dynamic combined fate and food web model was developed to investigate the influence of macrophytes (submerged aquatic vegetation) on the fate and food web transfer of pesticides of varying chemical properties in small-scale ecosystems such as ponds, streams, ditches or mesocosms. The model results indicate that aquatic macrophytes have a significant effect on the fate and food web transfer of highly hydrophobic compounds with log KOW ≥ 5. Modelled peak concentrations in biota were highest for the scenarios assuming the lowest macrophytes biomass density. The distribution and food web transfer of compounds with log KOW ≤ 4, which is a more representative hydrophobicity of the majority of current-use pesticides, are not affected by the inclusion of aquatic macrophytes in the pond environment. The increased importance of macrophytes for the highly hydrophobic compounds is a result of the dominance of particle deposition in the mass transfer of organic compounds from water to macrophytes. It is recommended that the mechanistic model developed here be used as a tool for interpreting laboratory, mesocosm and field measurements as well as a possible higher-tier regulatory tool, especially for assessing the aquatic behaviour of pesticides with high KOW values.

Keyword
Macrophytes, pesticide, fate, exposure, dynamic model, bioaccumulation
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-26398 (URN)
Available from: 2009-03-26 Created: 2009-03-24 Last updated: 2009-03-26Bibliographically approved
4. Biomagnification of organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic marine food chains from the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomagnification of organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic marine food chains from the Baltic Sea
2008 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 397, no 1-3, 190-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The trophic transfer of organic pollutants with varying physical chemical properties was determined in both a pelagic and benthic food chain using delta N-15 as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels. The trophic transfer of organic pollutants through the entire food chain in terms of food chain magnification factors (FCMFs) was quantified from the slope of the regression between In [concentration] and delta N-15. Organic pollutants with statistically significant FCMFs >1 were considered to biomagnify within the food chain, whereas those with FCMFs < 1 were considered to trophically dilute. Statistically significant FCMFs >1 were found for PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the Baltic food chains whereas statistically significant FCMFs <1 were found for PAHs and PCNs due to trophic dilution resulting from metabolism. FCMFs were generally greater in the pelagic food chain than in the benthic food chain. However, estimated FCMFs for the benthic food chain are likely in error, as the delta N-15 method suggested a food chain structure which was not consistent with the known dietary patterns of the species. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were additionally calculated as the ratio of the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey species with adjustment for trophic level and were generally consistent with the FCMFs with BMF >1 for PCBs and organochlorines.

Keyword
Baltic Sea, trophic transfer, biomagnification, organic pollutants, nitrogen isotopes, metabolism, food chain magnification
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-18910 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.02.029 (DOI)000256923000019 ()
Available from: 2009-02-16 Created: 2009-02-16 Last updated: 2012-11-07Bibliographically approved

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