Proteomics of the Drosophila hemolymph clot and the function of transglutaminase
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Insects rely on a fast and effective coagulation and wound response to avoid loss of body fluids and immobilize pathogens. Arthropod coagulation is in some respect equivalent to vertebrate coagulation but most factors and the regulation of coagulation systems seem not to be phylogenetically conserved. To get a more complete picture of insect clotting we studied the molecular and functional nature of Drosophila hemolymph coagulation.
We developed new proteomic methods to collect Drosophila clotting factors. Several candidate factors were identified, including both predicted and novel clot proteins. Five putative TG (transglutaminase) substrates were found and we could also demonstrate that the clot is involved in immobilization of bacteria. Further investigating the role of TG we found TG to be important for Drosophila coagulation and that Fondue is a major substrate of the enzyme. Using fon RNAi knockdown we showed that Fondue affects the physical properties of the clot. A fon-GFP fusion construct was generated to follow its expression. The cuticle and the clot were labelled suggesting that Fondue is incorporated into both cuticle and clot. Clot properties and composition were affected by inhibiting TG chemically (MDC) and genetically (RNAi). Moreover, interaction between Fondue and Eig71Ee was demonstrated. Previous results indicated that coagulation could have an immune function. In hemolymph preparations, containing selected microorganisms, small deposits were seen on the microbial surfaces. The contents of these were investigated, revealing the presence of procoagulants. The targeting of microbes is instant and depends on TG and its substrates. Entomopathogenic nematode infections were performed to validate the functional importance of TG. TG RNAi knockdown larvae showed increased mortality, supporting an immune function for TG. Altogether, our data provide a more comprehensive picture of Drosophila immunity, and may further improve the understanding of innate immunity in general.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University , 2009. , 31 p.
Drosophila, clotting, transglutaminase, innate immunity
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-26382ISBN: 978-91-7155-847-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-26382DiVA: diva2:209659
2009-05-08, De Geer-salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 8 A, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Söderhäll, Iréne, Docent
Theopold, Ulrich, Professor
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