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Feasibility of analyzing fine particulate matter in air using solid-phase extraction membranes and dynamic subcritical water extraction
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2008 (English)In: Analytical chemistry, ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 80, no 9, 3159-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have evaluated the feasibility of using Empore solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes as an alternative to conventional techniques for sampling fine airborne particulate matter (PM), including nanoparticles, utilizing a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a condensation particle counter to evaluate their efficiency for trapping fine particles in the 10-800 nm size range. The results demonstrate that the membranes can efficiently trap these particles and can then be conveniently packed into an extraction cell and extracted under matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) conditions. The potential utility of sampling PM using Empore membranes followed by dynamic subcritical water extraction (DSWE) for fast, efficient, class-selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with the particles, prior to changing the solvent and analysis by GC/MS, was then explored. The performance of the method was tested using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-certified "urban dust" reference material (SRM 1649a) and real samples collected at a site in central Rome with heavy road traffic. The method appears to provide comparable extraction efficiency to that of conventional techniques and with using GC/MS, detection limits ranged in the few picograms per cubic meter level. Sampling PM by Empore membranes may reduce the risks of losses of semivolatile compounds, while allowing relatively high sampling flow rates and safe sample storage. Moreover, the combination of MSPD with DSWE permits specific fractions of the PM components to be eluted, thereby generating clean extracts and reducing both analysis time and sample manipulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 80, no 9, 3159-67 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-26596DOI: 10.1021/ac7021458PubMedID: 18393539OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-26596DiVA: diva2:211072
Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-02 Last updated: 2009-04-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. New methods for determination of airborne pollutants: Focus on tetrabromobisphenol A, organophosphate triesters and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New methods for determination of airborne pollutants: Focus on tetrabromobisphenol A, organophosphate triesters and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The work presented in this thesis concerns the development and evaluation of new methods of sampling and analysis of organic pollutants in the indoor and outdoor environment.

In Paper I, the development of a new method was reported for the determination of the brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in air using sampling with glass fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF), ultrasonic solvent extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS). The MS fragmentation mechanism of TBBPA was thoroughly investigated and different acquisition modes were evaluated to achieve the most sensitive and selective detection.

In Papers II and III, the potential use of Empore SPE membranes was evaluated for air sampling of volatile, semi-volatile and particle-associated organic compounds. Breakthrough studies conducted for 24h at air flows of 10- 20 L/min showed that the SPE membranes efficiently retains volatile and semi-volatile organophosphate esters and particles >10 nm. Effort was invested in the development of fast and environmental friendly methods, with low cost, for sample clean up and analysis.

In Paper II, the sample preparation technique was dynamic solvent extraction with methanol coupled to LC-ESI/MS. The total run time per sample, including both extraction and separation, was less than 34 min, consuming only 1.6mL methanol. In Paper III, efficiency of selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter sampled with Empore SPE membranes, using dynamic subcritical water extraction (DSWE) was investigated. Acceptable recoveries of the investigated compounds from reference material (SRM 1649a) were achieved. In Paper IV, the application of dynamic solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) air sampling was evaluated using, gas chromatography/positive ion chemical ionisation (GC/PICI) and tandem-MS detection for the determination of organophosphate esters in work environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2009. 80 p.
Keyword
Air sampling, sampling methods, indoor air, SPE, SPME, extraction, dynamic extraction, online coupling, SWE, subcritical water extraction, GC/MS, LC/MS, organophosphate triesters, PAH, tetrabromobisphenol A
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-26700 (URN)978-91-7155-843-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-14, Magnélisalen, Kemiska Övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 12 A, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-23 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2010-12-14Bibliographically approved

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