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Evolutionary Perspectives on Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae): Molecular and Morphological Revelations
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Naidinae is a group of tiny oligochaetous clitellates, common all over the world, primarily in freshwater. The taxon includes about 180 nominal species. In this thesis it is shown (using molecular data) that Naidinae (sensu Erséus and Gustavsson, 2002) is non-monophyletic, since one genus, Pristina, formerly regarded as part of Naidinae, is well-separated from the remaining naidines by some genera of another clitellate subfamily, Rhyacodrilinae. The ultrastructure of coelomocytes from several naidine and rhyacodriline species are described and compared with each other and with coelomocytes previously studied, from other clitellate taxa. The naidine and rhyacodriline coelomocytes are similar, differing from those of other groups, which corroborates the hypothesis of a close relationship between Rhyacodrilinae and Naidinae.

Features of the chaetae are important taxonomic characters of Naidinae. However, the significance of chaetotaxy has been questioned. The correlation between genetic variation and chaetal morphology within the genus Nais is investigated. Principally, chaetal character patterns are congruent with the evolutionary lineages revealed by genetic data, but at least nine lineages correspond to at most six nominal species. The species complex Nais communis/variabilis appears to be a gathering of at least five separately evolving lineages. That is, cryptic speciation is revealed.

Finally, six molecular markers are used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within the group, and the resulting tree is used to track the evolution of morphological characters commonly used in naidine taxonomy. The tropical genera Dero, Branchiodrilus, and Allonais branch off from the base of the naidine tree of life, suggesting that Naidinae originally evolved in the tropics. Chaetal characters are shown to be homoplastic to a great extent within the group, most certainly contributing to the overall confusion in naidine systematics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University , 2009. , 48 p.
Keyword [en]
Naididae, Naidinae, phylogenetics, molecular systematics, morphology, ultrastructure
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-27533ISBN: 978-91-7155-855-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-27533DiVA: diva2:214632
Public defence
2009-06-03, Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Frescativägen 40, Stockholm, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-05-13 Created: 2009-05-06 Last updated: 2009-06-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Molecular evidence for the non-monophyletic status of Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular evidence for the non-monophyletic status of Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae)
2006 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 40, no 2, 570-584 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Naidinae (former Naididae) is a group of small aquatic clitellate annelids, common worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic status of Naidinae, and examined the phylogenetic relationships within the group. Sequence data from two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and 16S rDNA), and one nuclear gene (18S rDNA), were used. Sequences were obtained from 27 naidine species, 24 species from the other tubificid subfamilies, and five outgroup taxa. New sequences (in all 108) as well as GenBank data were used. The data were analysed by parsimony and Bayesian inference. The tree topologies emanating from the different analyses are congruent to a great extent. Naidinae is not found to be monophyletic. The naidine genus Pristina appears to be a derived group within a clade consisting of several genera (Ainudrilus, Epirodrilus, Monopylephorus, and Rhyacodrilus) from another tubificid subfamily, Rhyacodrilinae. These results demonstrate the need for a taxonomic revision: either Ainudrilus, Epirodrilus, Monopylephorus, and Rhyacodrilus should be included within Naidinae, or Pristina should be excluded from this subfamily. Monophyly of four out of six naidine genera represented by more than one species is supported: Chaetogaster, Dero, Paranais, and Pristina, respectively

Keyword
Naidinae, Naididae, Rhyacodrilinae, Tubificidae, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA;, Phylogeny, Taxonomy
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-27492 (URN)10.1016/j.ympev.2006.03.021 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Ultrastructural investigation of coelomocytes in representatives of Naidinae and Rhyacodrilinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrastructural investigation of coelomocytes in representatives of Naidinae and Rhyacodrilinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae)
2008 (English)In: Journal of Morphology, Vol. 269, no 9, 1157-1167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Various types of free-floating cells are found in the coelomic fluid of representatives of several annelid groups. The ultrastructure of these "coelomocytes," however, has been studied to a limited degree. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope to investigate the coelomocytes in specimens of five species of Naidinae and three species of Rhyacodrilinae (all oligochaetous clitellates within the family Tubificidae). These were compared with each other and with previously described coelomocytes of representatives of other oligochaete taxa. Only one distinguishable coelomocyte type was found in the studied specimens: a round to oblong cell without pseudopodia or other appendages, primarily containing membrane-bound granules of varying electron density, a prominent network of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosomes. This type differs to a great extent from most of the previously described coelomocytes, but shows similarities to certain types found in members of Enchytraeidae and Megascolecidae. Although we noticed some variation, we did not find any ultrastructural characters in these cells obviously useful for phylogenetic studies within Tubificidae.

National Category
Biological Sciences Zoology Biological Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-15400 (URN)10.1002/jmor.10652 (DOI)000258891600008 ()
Available from: 2008-12-02 Created: 2008-12-02 Last updated: 2010-10-27Bibliographically approved
3. The systematic position of Opistocystidae (Annelida, Clitellata) revealed by DNA data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The systematic position of Opistocystidae (Annelida, Clitellata) revealed by DNA data
2010 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 54, no 1, 309-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Opistocystidae Cernosvitov, 1936 is a largely Neotropical oligochaete taxon containing seven species. its familial status has never been formally challenged, although possible close relationships with Naididae and Phreodrilidae have been noted. Mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA, and nuclear 18S rDNA, of a range of aquatic oligochaete taxa, including Trieminentia corderoi (Opistocystidae), were analysed by Bayesian inference. This showed that T. corderoi is a derived lineage within Naididae, closely related to Pristina and its monotypic subfamily Pristininae. Opistocystidae as a whole (with its three genera, Opistocysta, Trieminentia, and Crustipellis) is thus likely to be a group within Naididae.

Keyword
Aquatic oligochaetes; Pristininae; Molecular systematics; Phylogeny; Taxonomic classification
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-27506 (URN)10.1016/j.ympev.2009.09.037 (DOI)000273518500029 ()
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-05 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Genetic and morphological variation in “cosmopolitan” Nais worms (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae): species diversity beyond that of current taxonomy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic and morphological variation in “cosmopolitan” Nais worms (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae): species diversity beyond that of current taxonomy
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-27507 (URN)
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-05 Last updated: 2010-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Naidine tree of life (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae) revisited – a multigene approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Naidine tree of life (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae) revisited – a multigene approach
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-27508 (URN)
Available from: 2009-05-06 Created: 2009-05-05 Last updated: 2010-12-14Bibliographically approved

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