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The radiation of Satyrini butterflies (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): a challenge for phylogenetic methods
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4195-8920
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
2011 (English)In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 161, no 1, 64-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have inferred the most comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis to date of butterflies in the tribe Satyrini. In order to obtain a hypothesis of relationships, we used maximum parsimony and model-based methods with 4435 bp of DNA sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear genes for 179 taxa (130 genera and eight out-groups). We estimated dates of origin and diversification for major clades, and performed a biogeographic analysis using a dispersal–vicariance framework, in order to infer a scenario of the biogeographical history of the group. We found long-branch taxa that affected the accuracy of all three methods. Moreover, different methods produced incongruent phylogenies. We found that Satyrini appeared around 42 Mya in either the Neotropical or the Eastern Palaearctic, Oriental, and/or Indo-Australian regions, and underwent a quick radiation between 32 and 24 Mya, during which time most of its component subtribes originated. Several factors might have been important for the diversification of Satyrini: the ability to feed on grasses; early habitat shift into open, non-forest habitats; and geographic bridges, which permitted dispersal over marine barriers, enabling the geographic expansions of ancestors to new environ- ments that provided opportunities for geographic differentiation, and diversificatio

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 161, no 1, 64-87 p.
Keyword [en]
Bayesian, biogeography, diversity. grasses, habitat shift, host plants, likelihood, parsimony
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-28419DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00627.xISI: 000276661200003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-28419DiVA: diva2:224256
Available from: 2009-06-17 Created: 2009-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evolutionary history of the butterfly subfamily Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary history of the butterfly subfamily Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

I present an overview of the evolutionary history of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). By using Bayesian and cladistic methods, I develop a phylogenetic hypothesis as a basis for studying the evolutionary history of the group. After estimating ages of origin and diversification for clades of interest, I show evidence for a radiation of a highly species-rich group of grass feeders in Satyrinae —the tribe Satyrini— which explains in part the high diversity of this group. The timing of diversification for Satyrini butterflies coincided with the spread of grasses throughout the globe, which was followed by spread of the butterflies and colonization of new emerging habitats made available by the change in global climate during the Oligocene that facilitated the spread of grasses. Such a dispersal of Satyrinae was the result of a habitat shift from closed, forested environments into open, grasslands and savannas, which became increasinly common since the Oligocene. Such dispersal of Satyrinae was facilitated by the appearance of geographic bridges that permitted ancestral migrations from the Palaearctic into North America and from North to South America, such as the continuous forest belt of Beringia (at 31 Mya and 14–10 Mya) and the temporary GAARlandia landspan (during 35–33 Mya). Thus, I show that the Satyrinae butterflies are such a highly diverse and distributed worldwide group of organisms thanks to many factors that were of crucial importance in their evolution. Intrisic factors such as evolution of adaptive traits and phylogenetic constrains, as well as exogenous contingencies such as climate change and geological events. Thus, in this thesis I show strong evidence that Satyrinae is so species-rich because they were able to feed on grasses, escape from living in dicotyledonous forests and start inhabiting grasslands and savannas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2009. 24 p.
Keyword
hostplant use, habitat shift, diversity, grasses, biogeography, phylogeny
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-8507 (URN)978-91-7155-810-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-03-13, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 8 C, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2009-02-19 Created: 2009-02-05 Last updated: 2011-03-22Bibliographically approved

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