Determination of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in particulate emissions from two diesel- and two gasoline-fuelled light-duty vehicles
2009 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 43, no 25, 3883-3890 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Emission factors of particulate-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) including benzo(a)pyrene and, for the first time, the highly carcinogenic dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, dibenzo(a,e)pyrene, dibenzo(a,i)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)pyrene have been determined in exhausts from two diesel- (DFVs) and two gasoline-fuelled light-duty vehicles (GFVs) operated in the Urban (AU), Rural Road (AR) and Motorway (AM) transient ARTEMIS driving cycles. The obtained results showed the DFVs to emit higher amounts of PAHs than the GFVs per km driving distance at low average speed in the AU driving cycle, while the GFVs emitted higher amounts of PAHs than the DFVs per km driving distance at higher average speeds in the AR and AM driving cycles. Furthermore, the study showed an increase in PAH emissions per km driving distance with increasing average speed for the GFVs with the opposite trend found for the DFVs. The GFVs generated particulate matter with higher PAH content than the DFVs in all three driving cycles tested with the highest concentrations obtained in the AR driving cycle. Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene was found to be a major contributor to the potential carcinogenicity accounting for 58–67% and 25–31% of the sum added potential carcinogenicity of the measured PAHs in the emitted particulate matter from the DFVs and GFVs, respectively. Corresponding values for benzo(a)pyrene were 16–25% and 11–40% for the DFVs and GFVs, respectively. The DFVs displayed higher sum added potential carcinogenicity of the measured PAHs than the GFVs in the AU driving cycle with the opposite trend found in the AR and AM driving cycles. The findings of this study show the importance of including the dibenzopyrenes in vehicle exhaust chemical characterizations to avoid potential underestimation of the carcinogenic activity of the emissions. The lower emissions and the lower sum added potential carcinogenicity of the measured PAHs found in this study for the GFVs compared to the DFVs in the AU driving cycle indicate the GFVs to be preferred in dense urban areas with traffic moving at low average speeds with multiple start and stops. However, the obtained results suggest the opposite to be true at higher average speeds with driving at rural roads and motorways. Further studies are, however, needed to establish if the observed differences between GFVs and DFVs are generally valid as well as to study the effects on variations in vehicle/engine type, ambient temperature, fuel and driving conditions on the emission factors.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 43, no 25, 3883-3890 p.
Regulated emissions, Particle emissions, Unregulated emissions, Gasoline, Diesel, Light-duty vehicles, PAH, Benzo(a)pyrene, Dibenzopyrenes, Dibenzo(a, l)pyrene, Toxic Equivalency Factor, TEF
Research subject Analytical Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29585DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.04.055ISI: 000268851600010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-29585DiVA: diva2:234333