Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Hazard Identification of Anti-fouling Paints and Contaminated Sediments by the Use of Biological Tests in Brackish Water
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ecotoxicological test methods are important tools in environmental risk assessment to investigate possible adverse effects that chemical substances may cause to aquatic ecosystems. The main aim of this doctoral thesis was to identify potential toxicity (hazard) of anti-fouling compounds and paints as well as contaminated sediments. Mainly tests with the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes were used. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints with a physical (biocide-free) or a chemical mode of action for use on pleasure boats and ships was investigated (Paper I and III). Several of the biocide-free paints were found to be toxic and some were even more toxic than paints based on leaching of biocides (Paper I and III). In paper II, release rates of Cu and Zn from both pleasure boat and ship paints were assessed and showed that the biocide-free paints release large amounts of Zn. The influence of salinity and organic matter on Cu toxicity to C. tenuicorne was investigated under brackish water conditions. Organic matter had a clear reducing effect on Cu toxicity while the effect of salinity had a minor impact on the toxicity (Paper IV). The potential toxicity of sediments was investigated by developing an ecotoxicological approach for screening of contaminated sites (Paper V). The results showed that sediments with known historical pollution were most toxic while reference sediments were least toxic. Also, the observed toxicity of some of the sediments could not be explained by the analyzed substances. In conclusion, the studies of anti-fouling paints have shown that the biocide-free paints can be very toxic and that the great release of Zn from biocide-free paints could have implications for the coastal ecosystem. Organic matter had a greater impact on Cu toxicity than salinity. The study with sediments provided a promising screening tool for use in prioritizing processes of contaminated sites. Finally, the importance of combining biological testing and chemical analysis was highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univeristy , 2009. , 39 p.
Keyword [en]
Anti-fouling paints; Toxicity tests; Hazard identification; Sediment toxicity; Ceramium tenuicorne; Nitocra spinipes
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29610ISBN: 978-91-7155-930-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-29610DiVA: diva2:234440
Public defence
2009-10-16, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows:Paper 2: submitted; Paper 3: submitted; Paper 4: manuscriptAvailable from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-09-08
List of papers
1. A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints
2006 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, no 52, 1661-1667 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The toxicity of a number of new anti-fouling paints, claimed to function by physical means and not by leakage of toxic substances, have been tested on two common organisms in the Baltic Sea, i.e., the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the copepod Nitocra spinipes. In order to compare the toxicity between the paints a ranking system was developed based on the EC50- and LC50-values. The results showed a wide span in toxicity with the most toxic paints ranked 160 times more toxic than the ones ranked least toxic. Also, TBT, irgarol and diuron, which have been used as active ingredients in traditional anti-fouling paints, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the two test organisms. The results showed that the test organisms were equally sensitive to the substances as similar organisms in earlier studies. In conclusion, the ranking system presented in this study permits ranking and comparison of total toxicity of complex mixtures.

Keyword
Anti-fouling; Nitocra; Ceramium; Irgarol; Diuron; TBT
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29620 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.06.007 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-03-17Bibliographically approved
2. Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater
2010 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, 2459-2466 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantification of release rates of Cu and Zn from biocide-containing and biocide-free antifouling paints, used on ships and leisure boats, were conducted in brackish artificial and natural seawater (ASW and NSW). To determine the toxicity of Cu and Zn, toxicity tests were performed with organisms from three trophic levels. Generally, the release rates of both Cu and Zn were higher in ASW than in NSW for the tested paints. The release rate of Cu in NSW was higher from the ship paints (3.2–3.6 μg cm-2d-1) than from the leisure boat paint (1.1 μg cm-2d-1). Biocide-free paints leached more Zn (4.4–8.2 μg cm-2d-1) than the biocide-containing paints (0.7–3.0 μg cm-2d-1). In conclusion, both Cu and Zn may be toxic to non-target organisms in areas with high boat density. To account for ecological risk associated with anti-fouling paints, Zn as wells as the active ingredients should be considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2010
Keyword
Baltic Sea; Macroalga; Crustacean; Ceramium; Nitocra
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29639 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.02.036 (DOI)
Note
3Available from: 2009-09-09 Created: 2009-09-09 Last updated: 2011-09-08Bibliographically approved
3. Influence of salinity and organic matter on the toxicity of Cu to a brackish water and marine clone of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of salinity and organic matter on the toxicity of Cu to a brackish water and marine clone of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 74, no 4, 636-642 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cu is a major active component in anti-fouling paints, which may reach toxic levels in areas with intense boat traffic and therefore is a metal of environmental concern. The bioavailability of metals is influenced by factors such as salinity and organic matter measured as total organic carbon (TOC). The influence of these two factors was studied, with a focus on brackish water conditions, by exposing a marine and a brackish water clone of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne to Cu in different combinations of artificial seawater (salinity 5–15‰) and TOC (0–4 mg/L) in the form of fulvic acid (FA). In addition, the toxicity of Cu to both clones was compared in salinity 10‰ and 15‰. The results show that by increasing TOC from 0 to 2 and 4 mg/L, Cu was in general less toxic to both algal clones at all salinities tested (p<0.05). The effect of salinity on Cu toxicity was not as apparent, both a positive and negative effect was observed. The brackish water clone showed generally to be more sensitive to Cu in salinity 10‰ and 15‰ than the marine counterpart. In conclusion, FA reduced the Cu toxicity overall. The Cu tolerance of both strains at different salinities may reflect their origin and their adaptations to marine and brackish water.

Keyword
Copper, Fulvic acid, DOC, Macroalgae, Ceramium tenuicorne, Ecotoxicology, Effect concentration
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-61987 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.09.013 (DOI)000290553400012 ()
Available from: 2011-09-06 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels
2010 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 3, 681-687 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leachates of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats are examined for their ecotoxicological potential. Paint leachates were produced in both 7‰ artificial (ASW) and natural seawater (NSW) and tested on three organisms, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Generally, leaching in ASW produced a more toxic leachate and was up to 12 times more toxic to the organisms than was the corresponding NSW leachate. The toxicity could be explained by elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn in the ASW leachates. Of the NSW leachates, those from the ship paints were more toxic than those from leisure boat paints. The most toxic paint was the biocide-free leisure boat paint Micron Eco. This implies that substances other than added active agents (biocides) were responsible for the observed toxicity, which would not have been discovered without the use of biological tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V, 2010
Keyword
Baltic Sea; Macroalga; Crustacean; Ceramium; Nitocra
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29640 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2009.10.024 (DOI)000275002900006 ()
Available from: 2009-09-09 Created: 2009-09-09 Last updated: 2011-09-08Bibliographically approved
5. Hazard identification of contaminated sites-ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hazard identification of contaminated sites-ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 8, no 4, 263-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background, aim, and scope It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with,e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compoundswith different polarities.

Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure(i.e., ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions(semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations,ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique.

Results and discussion Clear concentration–response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout,the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi-polar compounds, which are normally not considered in risk assessment of sediment since they are focused on compounds isolated in the hexane fraction.

Conclusions The ranking of the five sediments followed the expected pattern of potential toxicity in both organisms, i.e.,sediments with known pollution history caused major effects while reference sediments caused minor effects in the two test systems. Silica gel turned out to be an excellent carrier for exposure of N. spinipes to very hydrophobic and otherwise non-bioavailable sediment extracts.

Recommendations and perspectives Since both test systems demonstrated that a substantial part of the potential toxicity was caused by semi-polar compounds in the acetone fractions,this study enlightens our poor understanding of which compounds are causing adverse effects in environmental samples. Therefore, by investigating potential toxicity (i.e., hazard identification) as a first screening step in prioritizing processes,these implications could be avoided. For proper sediment risk assessment, we however recommend whole sediment toxicity tests to be used for selected sites at following tiers.

Keyword
Crustacea, Fish, PAH, PCB, PCDD/Fs, Sediment extract, Sediment toxicity, Semi-polar, Sublethal
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29621 (URN)10.1007/s11368-008-0015-3 (DOI)000259233100008 ()
Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-03-17Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Karlsson, Jenny
By organisation
Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM)
Other Environmental Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 302 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf