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A practical ranking system to compare toxicity of anti-fouling paints
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2006 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, no 52, 1661-1667 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The toxicity of a number of new anti-fouling paints, claimed to function by physical means and not by leakage of toxic substances, have been tested on two common organisms in the Baltic Sea, i.e., the red macro alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the copepod Nitocra spinipes. In order to compare the toxicity between the paints a ranking system was developed based on the EC50- and LC50-values. The results showed a wide span in toxicity with the most toxic paints ranked 160 times more toxic than the ones ranked least toxic. Also, TBT, irgarol and diuron, which have been used as active ingredients in traditional anti-fouling paints, were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the two test organisms. The results showed that the test organisms were equally sensitive to the substances as similar organisms in earlier studies. In conclusion, the ranking system presented in this study permits ranking and comparison of total toxicity of complex mixtures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. no 52, 1661-1667 p.
Keyword [en]
Anti-fouling; Nitocra; Ceramium; Irgarol; Diuron; TBT
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29620DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.06.007OAI: diva2:234490
Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-03-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hazard Identification of Anti-fouling Paints and Contaminated Sediments by the Use of Biological Tests in Brackish Water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hazard Identification of Anti-fouling Paints and Contaminated Sediments by the Use of Biological Tests in Brackish Water
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ecotoxicological test methods are important tools in environmental risk assessment to investigate possible adverse effects that chemical substances may cause to aquatic ecosystems. The main aim of this doctoral thesis was to identify potential toxicity (hazard) of anti-fouling compounds and paints as well as contaminated sediments. Mainly tests with the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes were used. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints with a physical (biocide-free) or a chemical mode of action for use on pleasure boats and ships was investigated (Paper I and III). Several of the biocide-free paints were found to be toxic and some were even more toxic than paints based on leaching of biocides (Paper I and III). In paper II, release rates of Cu and Zn from both pleasure boat and ship paints were assessed and showed that the biocide-free paints release large amounts of Zn. The influence of salinity and organic matter on Cu toxicity to C. tenuicorne was investigated under brackish water conditions. Organic matter had a clear reducing effect on Cu toxicity while the effect of salinity had a minor impact on the toxicity (Paper IV). The potential toxicity of sediments was investigated by developing an ecotoxicological approach for screening of contaminated sites (Paper V). The results showed that sediments with known historical pollution were most toxic while reference sediments were least toxic. Also, the observed toxicity of some of the sediments could not be explained by the analyzed substances. In conclusion, the studies of anti-fouling paints have shown that the biocide-free paints can be very toxic and that the great release of Zn from biocide-free paints could have implications for the coastal ecosystem. Organic matter had a greater impact on Cu toxicity than salinity. The study with sediments provided a promising screening tool for use in prioritizing processes of contaminated sites. Finally, the importance of combining biological testing and chemical analysis was highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univeristy, 2009. 39 p.
Anti-fouling paints; Toxicity tests; Hazard identification; Sediment toxicity; Ceramium tenuicorne; Nitocra spinipes
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29610 (URN)978-91-7155-930-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-16, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows:Paper 2: submitted; Paper 3: submitted; Paper 4: manuscriptAvailable from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-09-08

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Karlsson, JennyBreitholtz, MagnusEklund, Britta
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