Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater
2010 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, 2459-2466 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Quantification of release rates of Cu and Zn from biocide-containing and biocide-free antifouling paints, used on ships and leisure boats, were conducted in brackish artificial and natural seawater (ASW and NSW). To determine the toxicity of Cu and Zn, toxicity tests were performed with organisms from three trophic levels. Generally, the release rates of both Cu and Zn were higher in ASW than in NSW for the tested paints. The release rate of Cu in NSW was higher from the ship paints (3.2–3.6 μg cm-2d-1) than from the leisure boat paint (1.1 μg cm-2d-1). Biocide-free paints leached more Zn (4.4–8.2 μg cm-2d-1) than the biocide-containing paints (0.7–3.0 μg cm-2d-1). In conclusion, both Cu and Zn may be toxic to non-target organisms in areas with high boat density. To account for ecological risk associated with anti-fouling paints, Zn as wells as the active ingredients should be considered.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2010. Vol. 408, no 12, 2459-2466 p.
Baltic Sea; Macroalga; Crustacean; Ceramium; Nitocra
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29639DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.02.036OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-29639DiVA: diva2:234562