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Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2010 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, 2459-2466 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantification of release rates of Cu and Zn from biocide-containing and biocide-free antifouling paints, used on ships and leisure boats, were conducted in brackish artificial and natural seawater (ASW and NSW). To determine the toxicity of Cu and Zn, toxicity tests were performed with organisms from three trophic levels. Generally, the release rates of both Cu and Zn were higher in ASW than in NSW for the tested paints. The release rate of Cu in NSW was higher from the ship paints (3.2–3.6 μg cm-2d-1) than from the leisure boat paint (1.1 μg cm-2d-1). Biocide-free paints leached more Zn (4.4–8.2 μg cm-2d-1) than the biocide-containing paints (0.7–3.0 μg cm-2d-1). In conclusion, both Cu and Zn may be toxic to non-target organisms in areas with high boat density. To account for ecological risk associated with anti-fouling paints, Zn as wells as the active ingredients should be considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2010. Vol. 408, no 12, 2459-2466 p.
Keyword [en]
Baltic Sea; Macroalga; Crustacean; Ceramium; Nitocra
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29639DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.02.036OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-29639DiVA: diva2:234562
Note
3Available from: 2009-09-09 Created: 2009-09-09 Last updated: 2011-09-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hazard Identification of Anti-fouling Paints and Contaminated Sediments by the Use of Biological Tests in Brackish Water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hazard Identification of Anti-fouling Paints and Contaminated Sediments by the Use of Biological Tests in Brackish Water
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ecotoxicological test methods are important tools in environmental risk assessment to investigate possible adverse effects that chemical substances may cause to aquatic ecosystems. The main aim of this doctoral thesis was to identify potential toxicity (hazard) of anti-fouling compounds and paints as well as contaminated sediments. Mainly tests with the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes were used. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints with a physical (biocide-free) or a chemical mode of action for use on pleasure boats and ships was investigated (Paper I and III). Several of the biocide-free paints were found to be toxic and some were even more toxic than paints based on leaching of biocides (Paper I and III). In paper II, release rates of Cu and Zn from both pleasure boat and ship paints were assessed and showed that the biocide-free paints release large amounts of Zn. The influence of salinity and organic matter on Cu toxicity to C. tenuicorne was investigated under brackish water conditions. Organic matter had a clear reducing effect on Cu toxicity while the effect of salinity had a minor impact on the toxicity (Paper IV). The potential toxicity of sediments was investigated by developing an ecotoxicological approach for screening of contaminated sites (Paper V). The results showed that sediments with known historical pollution were most toxic while reference sediments were least toxic. Also, the observed toxicity of some of the sediments could not be explained by the analyzed substances. In conclusion, the studies of anti-fouling paints have shown that the biocide-free paints can be very toxic and that the great release of Zn from biocide-free paints could have implications for the coastal ecosystem. Organic matter had a greater impact on Cu toxicity than salinity. The study with sediments provided a promising screening tool for use in prioritizing processes of contaminated sites. Finally, the importance of combining biological testing and chemical analysis was highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univeristy, 2009. 39 p.
Keyword
Anti-fouling paints; Toxicity tests; Hazard identification; Sediment toxicity; Ceramium tenuicorne; Nitocra spinipes
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-29610 (URN)978-91-7155-930-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-16, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows:Paper 2: submitted; Paper 3: submitted; Paper 4: manuscriptAvailable from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-09-08
2. Release rates and toxicity of metals from anti-fouling paints and the role of chemical speciation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Release rates and toxicity of metals from anti-fouling paints and the role of chemical speciation
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate and improve the risk assessment of anti-fouling paints. A new method, the Petri-dish method, was developed to determine release rates of copper and zinc from anti-fouling paints (Paper I). The release rates of zinc were substantially higher from the biocide-free leisure boat paints than from the biocide-leaching paints. In Paper II, the potential toxicity of paint leachates was assessed and the biocide-free paint proved to be the most toxic paint investigated. Zinc, a supposedly non-biocidal ingredient in copper-based and other antifouling paints, was found to contribute significantly to the observed toxicity of all leisure boat paints investigated. This means that risk assessment of an anti-fouling paint based on only the active biocidal ingredient in the formula is insufficient. A more holistic approach, based on hazard identification and dose-response assessment of anti-fouling paint leachate, with all ingredients taken into consideration, is recommended. This can be achieved by the Petri-dish method, which combines chemical analysis with ecotoxicological tests of paint leachates. In Paper III and IV, the effects of salinity and organic matter on copper bioaccumulation and toxicity to the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne were studied. Salinity had only a minor effect in ameliorating copper toxicity, whereas the organic matter concentration had a significant effect in reducing the bioavailability and hence copper toxicity at all salinities tested. Copper uptake and bioaccumulation by C. tenuicorne showed that the macroalga could access a sizeable fraction of organically-complexed copper in addition to Cu2+, when Cu2+ concentration to the cell membrane is diffusion limited. This observation implies that the setting of environmental quality standards (EQSs) for copper and other metals through the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is inappropriate in predicting copper uptake and hence toxicity to C. tenuicorne.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2011. 37 p.
Keyword
Anti-fouling paints, Toxicity test, Ceramium tenuicorne, Nitocra spinipes, Copper, Zinc, Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-61992 (URN)978-91-7447-352-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-21, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 09:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-06 Last updated: 2011-09-19Bibliographically approved

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