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High-resolution observations of SN 2001gd in NGC 5033
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2005 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 360, 1055-1062 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on 8.4-GHz very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of SN 2001gd in the spiral galaxy NGC 5033 made on 2002 June 26 (2002.48) and 2003 April 8 (2003.27). We used the interferometric visibility data to estimate angular diameter sizes for the supernova by model fitting. Our data nominally suggest a relatively strong deceleration for the expansion of SN 2001gd, but we cannot dismiss the possibility of a free supernova expansion. From our VLBI observations on 2003 April 8, we inferred a minimum total energy in relativistic particles and magnetic fields in the supernova shell of Emin= (0.3-14) × 1047 erg, and a corresponding equipartition average magnetic field of Bmin= 50-350 mG. We also present multiwavelength Very Large Array (VLA) measurements of SN 2001gd made at our second VLBI epoch at frequencies of 1.4, 4.9, 8.4, 15.0, 22.5 and 43.3 GHz. The VLA data are well fitted by an optically thin, synchrotron spectrum (α=-1.0 +/- 0.1; Sν~να), partially absorbed by thermal plasma. We obtain a supernova flux density of 1.02 +/- 0.05 mJy at the observing frequency of 8.4 GHz for the second epoch, which results in an isotropic radio luminosity of (6.0 +/- 0.3) × 1036 erg s-1 between 1.4 and 43.3 GHz, at an adopted distance of 13.1 Mpc. Finally, we report on an XMM-Newton X-ray detection of SN 2001gd on 2002 December 18. The supernova X-ray spectrum is consistent with optically thin emission from a soft component (associated with emission from the reverse shock) at a temperature of around 1 keV. The observed flux corresponds to an isotropic X-ray luminosity of LX= (1.4 +/- 0.4) × 1039 erg s-1 in the 0.3-5 keV band. We suggest that both radio and X-ray observations of SN 2001gd indicate that a circumstellar interaction similar to that displayed by SN 1993J in M 81 is taking place.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 360, 1055-1062 p.
Keyword [en]
supernovae: individual: SN2001gd, galaxies: individual: NGC5033, radio continuum: stars, X-rays: individual SN 2001gd
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-30944DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09102.xOAI: diva2:274783
Available from: 2009-11-01 Created: 2009-11-01 Last updated: 2011-02-15Bibliographically approved

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Lundqvist, P.
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Department of Astronomy
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