Defining the Determinants for Dual Targeting of Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases to Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
2009 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, Vol. 393, no 4, 803-814 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Most of the organellar amino acyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are dually targeted to both mitochondria and chloroplasts using dual targeting peptides (dTPs). We have investigated the targeting properties and domain structure of dTPs of seven aaRSs by studying the in vitro and in vivo import of N-terminal deleted constructs of dTPs fused to green fluorescent protein. The deletion constructs were designed based on prediction programs, TargetP and Predotar, as well as LogoPlots derived from organellar proteomes in Arabidopsis thaliana. In vitro import was performed either into a single isolated organelle or as dual import (i.e., into a mixture of isolated mitochondria and chloroplasts followed by reisolation of the organelles). In vivo import was investigated as transient expression of the green fluorescent protein constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. Characterization of recognition determinants showed that the N-terminal portions of TyrRS-, ValRS- and ThrRS-dTPs (27, 22 and 23 amino acids, respectively) are required for targeting into both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Surprisingly, these N-terminal portions contain no or very few arginines (or lysines) but very high number of hydroxylated residues (26–51%). For two aaRSs, a domain structure of the dTP became evident. Removal of 20 residues from the dTP of ProRS abolished chloroplastic import, indicating that the N-terminal region was required for chloroplast targeting, whereas deletion of 16 N-terminal amino acids from AspRS-dTP inhibited the mitochondrial import, showing that in this case, the N-terminal portion was required for the mitochondrial import. Finally, deletion of N-terminal regions of dTPs for IleRS and LysRS did not affect dual targeting. In summary, it can be concluded that there is no general rule for how the determinants for dual targeting are distributed within dTPs; in most cases, the N-terminal portion is essential for import into both organelles, but in a few cases, a domain structure was observed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 393, no 4, 803-814 p.
dual targeting; amino acyl-tRNA synthetase; mitochondria; chloroplast; targeting peptide
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-31103DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.08.072ISI: 000271528300003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-31103DiVA: diva2:275225