Proteolytic processing of the Alzheimer APP protein family during neuronal differentiation
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Increased amyloid-β (Aβ) load in the brain, neurite degeneration, neuronal loss, and decreased levels of several neurotrophins are among the characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Generation of Aβ occurs when the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is proteolytically processed by β- and γ-secretases in the amyloidogenic pathway. However, Aβ formation is prevented if APP is cleaved by α- and γ- secretases in the non-amyloidogenic pathway. The normal function of APP is still not fully known. It seems clear that the different fragments that are produced during proteolytic processing have different bioactive properties. APP and its metabolites have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, cell adhesion, neuroprotection and apoptosis.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate how neurotrophic factors affect the synthesis and processing of APP and its two mammalian paralogues the APP-like protein-1 and-2 (APLP1 and APLP2). We also wanted to determine how the expression levels of α- and β- secretases were affected in response to these factors. In addition, we wanted to analyze if the levels and function of the most well characterized APP adaptor protein, Fe65, was regulated during neuronal differentiation.
Our results show that retinoic acid (RA), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) all regulate expression levels and processing of the APP protein family. Interestingly, the increased processing of the APP family involves different signaling pathways. The PI3-K/Akt pathway is involved in IGF-1-induced APP and APLP1, but not APLP2, processing. In addition, RA-induced expression of the α-secretase, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 is dependent on PI3-K, whereas PKC is involved in RA-induced expression of another α-secretase, ADAM17/TACE. Furthermore, we present evidence that maturation of the adaptor protein Fe65, as well as its docking to APP, increases concomitant with neuronal differentiation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Neurochemistry, Stockholm University , 2009. , 82 p.
APP, APLP1, APLP2, differentiation, processing, retinoic acid, secretase
Research subject Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-31301ISBN: 978-91-7155-942-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-31301DiVA: diva2:276034
2009-12-18, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratioriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Hooper, Nigel, Professor
Iverfeldt, Kerstin, Professor
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.2009-11-262009-11-102015-03-09Bibliographically approved
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