School-related stress and subjective health: Effort and reward among school pupils
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
The present study analyses the relationship between effort and reward in school and the subjective health of ninth grade pupils in Stockholm, Sweden. Effort is constructed from two items: the pupil’s own assessment of his or her effort in very difficult school tasks, and whether he or she chooses to do something else if the school task is perceived as boring. Reward is operationalized in two alternate ways: as school marks, and as appreciation from teachers. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey (Stockholmsenkäten) of 2004, a survey of all pupils in the greater Stockholm area who attended the ninth and final grade of comprehensive school in 2004 (n=8,695). Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted. The main findings are that both effort and reward are positively related to pupils’ subjective health, and that high effort in particular is associated with better subjective health. Low effort combined with low reward in terms of school marks is associated with the poorest health, although this is largely accounted for by confounding variables. Low effort and low reward in terms of little appreciation from teachers are associated with the poorest health also when potential confounders are controlled for. Contextual effects on subjective health are found for girls but not for boys.
School, effort-reward imbalance, subjective health, ninth grade, Sweden
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-31625OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-31625DiVA: diva2:277936