Glutathione intensifies gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
2006 (English)In: Cell Biology and Toxicology, ISSN 0742-2091, E-ISSN 1573-6822, Vol. 22, no 2, 127-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Gliotoxin is a fungal second metabolite produced by diverse species that can be found in compost, stored crops, moist animal feed and sawdust. The role of glutathione in gliotoxin-induced toxicity was studied in order to elucidate the toxic mechanisms leading to neurite degeneration and cell death in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. After 72 h of exposure to gliotoxin, moderate cytotoxicity was induced at 0.1 micromol/L, which was more severe at higher concentrations. A reduction in the number of neurites per cell was also observed. By decreasing the level of intracellular glutathione with L: -buthionine-sulfoxamine (BSO) a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, the cytotoxic effect of gliotoxin was significantly attenuated. The gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity was also slightly reduced by the antioxidant vitamin C. However, the neurite degenerative effect was not altered by BSO, or by vitamin C. A concentration-dependent increase in the ratio between oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione, as well as the total intracellular glutathione levels, was noted after exposure to gliotoxin. The increase of glutathione was also reflected in western blot analyses showing a tendency for the regulatory subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase to be upregulated. In addition, the activity of glutathione reductase was slightly increased in gliotoxin-exposed cells. These results indicate that glutathione promotes gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity, probably by reducing the ETP (epipolythiodioxopiperazine) disulfide bridge to the dithiol form.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 22, no 2, 127-36 p.
Research subject Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-32298DOI: 10.1007/s10565-006-0048-6PubMedID: 16525752OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-32298DiVA: diva2:279979