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Levels and potential sources of decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in lake sediment and marine sediment in Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2010 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 6, 1987-1991 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR) used as a replacement for the structurally similar decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), which is a regulated environmental contaminant of concern. Dbdpe has been found in indoor dust, sewage sludge, sediment and biota, but little is known about its occurrence and distribution in the environment. In this paper, sediment was analyzed from 11 isolated Swedish lakes and along a transect running from central Stockholm through the Stockholm archipelago to the open Baltic Sea. Dbdpe was present in all samples. In lake sediment, the levels ranged from 0.23 to 11 ng/g d.wt. and were very similar to the levels of decaBDE (0.48-11 ng/g d.wt.). Since the lakes have no known point sources of BFRs, their presence in the sediments provides evidence for long range atmospheric transport and deposition. In the marine sediment, the dbdpe and decaBDE levels decreased by a factor of 20-50 over 40 km from the inner harbor to the outer archipelago. There the dbdpe and decaBDE levels were similar to the levels in nearby isolated lakes. The results indicate that contamination of the Swedish environment with dbdpe has already approached that of decaBDE, and that this contamination is primarily occurring via the atmosphere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 44, no 6, 1987-1991 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34188DOI: 10.1021/es903701qOAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-34188DiVA: diva2:284461
Available from: 2010-01-07 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental occurrence and behaviour of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental occurrence and behaviour of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The environmental occurrence and behaviour of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe) has only been studied to a limited extent. It is structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), which makes it conceivable that dbdpe may also become an environmental contaminant of concern.

A method for environmental analysis and comparative assessments of dbdpe and decaBDE was developed. Both BFRs were studied in: a mass balance of the Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm (Paper I); an international survey of sewage sludge (Paper II); sediment along a transect from Henriksdal WWTP to the outer archipelago of Stockholm and from isolated Swedish lakes (Paper III); and a benthic food web from the Scheldt estuary (Paper IV).

Dbdpe was found in sludge from every country surveyed, indicating that it may be a worldwide concern. The WWTP mass balance showed that virtually all of the BFRs were transferred from wastewater to sludge. A small fraction was emitted via the effluent, confirming emissions to the aquatic environment. In the marine sediment, the BFR levels close to the WWTP outfall were high. They decreased along the transect to low levels in the outer archipelago. The study of lake sediment showed a widespread presence of dbdpe in the Swedish environment and provided evidence that it originates from long range atmospheric transport. In the food web, dbdpe did bioaccumulate to a small extent which was similar to decaBDE. The transfer of the BFRs from sediment to benthic invertebrates was low, while transfer from prey to predator was higher. Biodilution was observed rather than biomagnification.

This work suggests that the persistence, the susceptibility to long range atmospheric transport, and the potential for bioaccumulation are similar for dbdpe and the regulated decaBDE that it is replacing. Thus, there is a risk that a problematic environmental pollutant is being replaced with a chemical that is equally problematic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2010. 34 p.
Keyword
brominated flame retardant, decabromodiphenyl ether, waste water treatment plant, mass balance, sludge, long range transport, atmospheric deposition, bioaccumulation, bioavailability
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34060 (URN)978-91-7155-997-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-05, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-01-14 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2010-01-07Bibliographically approved

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