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Analysis of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Swedish Biota : Temporal trends, tissue distribution and toxicity
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). (Analysis of emerging halogenated aliphatic pollutants (PAX))
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are found in high concentrations in top predators worldwide, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the predominant compound. Due to concerns regarding toxicity and persistence of PFOS, this compound was included in the Stockholm convention of persistent organic pollutants in 2009.

PFAS differ from other persistent organic pollutants in their physicochemical properties and as a result their environmental fate is insufficiently understood. The focus of this thesis was to learn more on the environmental fate of PFAS by analysis of 15 different PFAS in Swedish biota. Analytes included perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; carbon chain lengths C6-C15), perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8, C10), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA).

Elevated concentrations of PFAS were found in the marine, terrestrial and limnic Swedish environment, exemplified by Baltic common guillemot (Uria aalge), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and the amphipod Monoporeia affinis. PFOS was the predominant PFAS in the species. Analysis of archived material showed that PFOS concentration had increased 30-fold in guillemot eggs since 1968. PFOS concentration in peregrine falcon eggs had increased from 1974 to the mid 1980s and then leveled off, while PFCA in the falcon eggs showed an exponential increase until recent years. The relation between PFAS concentrations in egg and in tissue from adult guillemot showed that PFAS had different potentials for transfer to the egg, depending on chain length and functional group.

The toxicological implications of PFAS pollution in the Swedish environment are not known but the high concentrations of PFOS in the Baltic guillemot eggs are of concern. Recent toxicological studies show toxic effects of PFOS in concentrations close to, or below the concentrations reported in this thesis. The margins of safety seem to be higher for the PFCAs, although toxicity data are scarce.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2010. , 43 p.
Keyword [en]
Environmental chemistry, PFOS, PFAS, pollutant, Baltic guillemot, peregrine falcon, Monoporeia affinis, time trend, toxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34181ISBN: 978-91-7155-998-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-34181DiVA: diva2:284470
Public defence
2010-02-19, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-01-28 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2010-04-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Temporal trends of PFOS and PFOA in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea, 1968-2003
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of PFOS and PFOA in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea, 1968-2003
2005 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 39, no 1, 80-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Although they have been produced for 50 years, little is known about when they first appeared in the environment and how their concentrations have changed over time, particularly in response to the phase-out-of PFOS, which began in 2000. In this study temporal trends in the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the Baltic Sea marine environment were measured using archived guillemot eggs. Samples collected from Stora Karlso (Sweden) between 1968 and 2003 were received from an environmental specimen bank and concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were analyzed using HPLC coupled to ESI-MS/MS. PFOA was not detected in any of the samples (LOD 3 ng/g), but there was an almost 30-fold increase in PFOS concentrations in the guillemot eggs during the time period, from 25 ng/g in 1968 to 614 ng/g in 2003 (wet weight). Regression analysis indicated a significant trend, increasing on average between 7 and 11% per year. A sharp peak in PFOS concentrations was observed in 1997 followed by decreasing levels up to 2002, but this cannot be linked to the PFOS phase-out, which occurred at the end of this period.

Keyword
Perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorinated surfactants, fluorinated, hydrocarbons, marine mammals, uria-aalge, birds, biota, water, fluorochemicals, environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34290 (URN)10.1021/es049257d (DOI)
Available from: 2010-01-07 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2010-01-08Bibliographically approved
2. Tissue Distribution of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue Distribution of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea
2008 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 42, no 16, 5879-5884 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorinated alkyl surfactants (PFAS) were investigated in tissues and organs of the common guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of 11 perfluorinated carboxylates, four perfluorinated sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were determined in egg, liver, kidney, and muscle of adult guillemot, as well as in liver from chicks, all sampled in 1989. Additionally, whole herring homogenates from 2005 were analyzed, herring comprising a large part of guillemot’s diet. Quantifiable concentrations of PFAS were found in all samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was predominant, followed by perfluorotridecanoate (PFTriDA) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA). The median concentration of PFOS was highest in eggs (325 ng/g wet weight (w wt)) followed by chick liver (309 ng/g w wt), kidney (127 ng/g w wt), adult liver (121 ng/g w wt), and muscle (14 ng/g w wt). Comparatively low levels of PFOS were found in herring, leaving a blurred picture of uptake routes. PFAS concentrations in livers of male and female guillemots did not differ significantly. Some PFAS showed higher concentrations in eggs than in female livers. The ratio of levels in egg/female liver, indicating mother-to-egg transfer capacity, increased with increasing PFAS chain length. PFOS showed a higher tendency for transfer than carboxylates of carbon chain lengths C9−C13.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-18923 (URN)10.1021/es800529h (DOI)000258439600010 ()
Available from: 2009-02-17 Created: 2009-02-17 Last updated: 2010-01-08Bibliographically approved
3. Temporal trends of perfluorinated surfactants in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of perfluorinated surfactants in Swedish peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus)
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Environmental chemistry, PFOS, PFAS, pollutant, Baltic guillemot, peregrine falcon, Monoporeia affinis, time trend, toxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry; Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34285 (URN)
Available from: 2010-01-07 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2010-01-08Bibliographically approved
4. Perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation and parasite infestation in a field population of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis after microcosm exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation and parasite infestation in a field population of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis after microcosm exposure
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2010 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 98, no 1, 99-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the focus of intense toxicity research due to its persistence and widespread occurrence in biota. Studies on benthic invertebrates have shown them to be subjects of high PFOS exposure. However, effects on benthic invertebrates exposed to PFOS in the field are still far from elucidated. To fill a knowledge gap on concentrations and effects in benthic invertebrates, a microcosm study on the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis was performed. Field collected M. affinis were analysed for PFOS and showed average background concentrations 39 and 58 ng/g (wet weight) in two different samplings. The field collected animals were exposed to three concentrations of PFOS (50, 200 and 5000 μg PFOS/L water) for 3 weeks during gonad development. Body burdens of PFOS were determined after experiment termination. Results showed negative effects on survival and reproduction effects such as decreased sexual maturation and decreased oocyte viability caused by PFOS exposure. Additionally, a follow-up experiment demonstrated a significant increase in the infection incidence by a microsporidian muscle parasite in animals exposed to PFOS at tissue concentrations in the range of concentrations found in field collected benthic amphipods. This is the first study to demonstrate increased microsporidian infection with pollutant exposure and it suggests that ecologically relevant PFOS concentrations could be sufficient to elicit these effects.

Keyword
Amphipod parasite perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS microcosm Monoporeia affinis
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38296 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.01.017 (DOI)000278506900013 ()
Available from: 2010-04-07 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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