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Temporal trends of PFOS and PFOA in guillemot eggs from the Baltic Sea, 1968-2003
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2005 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 39, no 1, 80-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Although they have been produced for 50 years, little is known about when they first appeared in the environment and how their concentrations have changed over time, particularly in response to the phase-out-of PFOS, which began in 2000. In this study temporal trends in the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the Baltic Sea marine environment were measured using archived guillemot eggs. Samples collected from Stora Karlso (Sweden) between 1968 and 2003 were received from an environmental specimen bank and concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were analyzed using HPLC coupled to ESI-MS/MS. PFOA was not detected in any of the samples (LOD 3 ng/g), but there was an almost 30-fold increase in PFOS concentrations in the guillemot eggs during the time period, from 25 ng/g in 1968 to 614 ng/g in 2003 (wet weight). Regression analysis indicated a significant trend, increasing on average between 7 and 11% per year. A sharp peak in PFOS concentrations was observed in 1997 followed by decreasing levels up to 2002, but this cannot be linked to the PFOS phase-out, which occurred at the end of this period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 39, no 1, 80-84 p.
Keyword [en]
Perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorinated surfactants, fluorinated, hydrocarbons, marine mammals, uria-aalge, birds, biota, water, fluorochemicals, environment
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34290DOI: 10.1021/es049257dOAI: diva2:284481
Available from: 2010-01-07 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2010-01-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Analysis of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Swedish Biota : Temporal trends, tissue distribution and toxicity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Swedish Biota : Temporal trends, tissue distribution and toxicity
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are found in high concentrations in top predators worldwide, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the predominant compound. Due to concerns regarding toxicity and persistence of PFOS, this compound was included in the Stockholm convention of persistent organic pollutants in 2009.

PFAS differ from other persistent organic pollutants in their physicochemical properties and as a result their environmental fate is insufficiently understood. The focus of this thesis was to learn more on the environmental fate of PFAS by analysis of 15 different PFAS in Swedish biota. Analytes included perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; carbon chain lengths C6-C15), perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8, C10), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA).

Elevated concentrations of PFAS were found in the marine, terrestrial and limnic Swedish environment, exemplified by Baltic common guillemot (Uria aalge), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and the amphipod Monoporeia affinis. PFOS was the predominant PFAS in the species. Analysis of archived material showed that PFOS concentration had increased 30-fold in guillemot eggs since 1968. PFOS concentration in peregrine falcon eggs had increased from 1974 to the mid 1980s and then leveled off, while PFCA in the falcon eggs showed an exponential increase until recent years. The relation between PFAS concentrations in egg and in tissue from adult guillemot showed that PFAS had different potentials for transfer to the egg, depending on chain length and functional group.

The toxicological implications of PFAS pollution in the Swedish environment are not known but the high concentrations of PFOS in the Baltic guillemot eggs are of concern. Recent toxicological studies show toxic effects of PFOS in concentrations close to, or below the concentrations reported in this thesis. The margins of safety seem to be higher for the PFCAs, although toxicity data are scarce.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2010. 43 p.
Environmental chemistry, PFOS, PFAS, pollutant, Baltic guillemot, peregrine falcon, Monoporeia affinis, time trend, toxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34181 (URN)978-91-7155-998-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-19, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-01-28 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2010-04-08Bibliographically approved

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