Massive formation of intracellular membrane vesicles in Escherichia coli by a monotopic membrane-bound lipid glycosyltransferase
2009 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 284, no 49, 33904-33914 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The morphology and curvature of biological bilayers are determined by the packing shapes and interactions of their participant molecules. Bacteria, except photosynthetic groups, usually lack intracellular membrane organelles. Strong overexpression in Escherichia coli of a foreign monotopic glycosyltransferase (named monoglycosyldiacylglycerol synthase), synthesizing a nonbilayer-prone glucolipid, induced massive formation of membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm. Vesicle assemblies were visualized in cytoplasmic zones by fluorescence microscopy. These have a very low buoyant density, substantially different from inner membranes, with a lipid content of > or = 60% (w/w). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy revealed cells to be filled with membrane vesicles of various sizes and shapes, which when released were mostly spherical (diameter approximately 100 nm). The protein repertoire was similar in vesicle and inner membranes and dominated by the glycosyltransferase. Membrane polar lipid composition was similar too, including the foreign glucolipid. A related glycosyltransferase and an inactive monoglycosyldiacylglycerol synthase mutant also yielded membrane vesicles, but without glucolipid synthesis, strongly indicating that vesiculation is induced by the protein itself. The high capacity for membrane vesicle formation seems inherent in the glycosyltransferase structure, and it depends on the following: (i) lateral expansion of the inner monolayer by interface binding of many molecules; (ii) membrane expansion through stimulation of phospholipid synthesis, by electrostatic binding and sequestration of anionic lipids; (iii) bilayer bending by the packing shape of excess nonbilayer-prone phospholipid or glucolipid; and (iv) potentially also the shape or penetration profile of the glycosyltransferase binding surface. These features seem to apply to several other proteins able to achieve an analogous membrane expansion.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 284, no 49, 33904-33914 p.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject Biochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34581DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.021618ISI: 000272165200023PubMedID: 19767390OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-34581DiVA: diva2:285164