Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Which aluminium fractionation method will give true inorganic monomeric Al results in fresh waters (not including colloidal Al)?
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Uppsala universitet, EBC, Department of Limnology .
2009 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 11, no 9, 1639-1646 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aluminium solubility and toxicity increase with acidification. There is no standardized analytical method for the determination of inorganic monomeric Al (Al(im)), which is the form that causes toxicity to fish. Separation by cation exchange is commonly combined with other analytical methods, such as complexation with pyrochatechol violet (PCV) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and total quantification using graphite furnace or inductively-coupled plasma emission. Data from 14 laboratories were obtained for a dilution series of Al(im) samples; the results of the Al(im) analysis were statistically evaluated. The Al(im) levels were altered through pH, which was controlled by the addition of calcium hydroxide. Confounding parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC) or fluoride (F) were controlled. The total determination and HQ methods yielded significantly higher Al(im) concentrations than the PCV method. Pretreatment by passage through a 0.45 microm filter and pH-adjustment of the ion exchange column had no apparent effect on the Al(im) yield. However, ultra filtration (<10 kDa) caused a significant reduction in the Al(im) concentration using the HQ method. The ultra filtrated Al(im) fraction was similar to the PCV results in the interlaboratory comparison. Retention of colloidal bound Al in the cation exchange column may result in overestimation of Al(im) when the total and HQ methods are used. Estimated Al(im) concentrations derived from two equilibrium models were similar to PCV-derived Al(im) concentrations, as well as the HQ method using ultra filtrated water. The fact that the PCV method does not detect colloidal Al, neither before nor after ion exchange, makes this a preferred technique for Al(im) analysis. Because of the variability in the reported Al(im) concentrations that can arise when different analytical procedures are used, the adoption of a single, reliable technique will facilitate inter-study comparisons and provide consistency in the detection of trends in environmental monitoring programs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry , 2009. Vol. 11, no 9, 1639-1646 p.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34600DOI: 10.1039/b902846cISI: 000269493800011PubMedID: 19724834OAI: diva2:285270
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2012-09-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Toxicity of Inorganic Aluminium in Humic Streams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxicity of Inorganic Aluminium in Humic Streams
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aluminium (Al) has been recognised as a main toxic factor alongside pH in acidified water ecosystems. The toxic effect of Al has been attributed to inorganic Al (Ali), though there are few in situ studies in ambient humic waters which are the focus of this thesis.

The aim was to estimate Ali toxicity and thus also Ali concentrations in Swedish humic streams. Subsequently it is necessary to analyse Ali correctly, which was studied by modelling and method intercalibrations. The hypothesis was that the effect of Ali could be followed via physiological effects and Al accumulation, as well as by mortality. Toxicity was studied by in stream exposures of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and two salmonid prey organisms (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani) during spring flood.

The modelling of the Ali fraction was performed using monitoring data covering all of Sweden with satisfactory results. The essential variables for Ali modelling were determined; Al, DOC, pH and F, while Fe, Ca and Mg had less effect. The automated analytical procedure for Ali (with cation exchange followed by complexation with pyrocatechol violet) was modified and validated and showed to be the preferred method for laboratory analyses.

To avoid detrimental effects for brown trout Ali should be <20 µg/L and pH >5.0; mortality was high when the Ali was above 50 µg/L. The invertebrates were more sensitive, as mortalities occurred at pH <6.0 and Ali >15 µg/L for G. pulex, and at pH <5.7 and Ali >20 µg/L for B. rhodani. It is prudent to use a wide view and let the most sensitive species set the tolerance limits; a pH above 5.7-6.0 and Ali below 15-20 µg/L allows the stream ecosystems to thrive.

Today, as waters are recovering from acidification, the aim of mitigating liming is to carefully adjust dosage to avoid suboptimal water quality. The thresholds found in this thesis can be used to efficiently but carefully decrease liming, as both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to sustain the recovering aquatic biota.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2012. 42 p.
Inorganic Al, toxicity, acidification, humic streams
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80651 (URN)978-91-7447-577-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-26, De Geer Salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2012-09-25Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Andrén, Cecilia M
By organisation
Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM)
In the same journal
Journal of Environmental Monitoring
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 62 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link