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The atrophy and changes in the cellular compositions of the thymus and spleen observed in mice subjected to short-term exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate are high-dose phenomena mediated in part by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
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2009 (English)In: Toxicology, ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 260, no 1-3, 68-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have previously shown that short-term, high-dose exposure of mice to the environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) results in thymic and splenic atrophy and the attenuation of specific humoral immune responses. Here we characterize the effects of a 10-day treatment with different dietary doses (1-0.001%, w/w) of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), a similar fluorochemical, on the immune system of male C57BL/6 mice. At doses greater than 0.02%, PFOS induced clinical signs of toxicity in the animals, whereas at the concentration of 0.02%, this compound caused weight loss, hepatomegaly and atrophy of the thymus, spleen and adipose tissue without toxicity. With this latter dose, histopathological and flow-cytometric analysis revealed that (i) the thymic cortex was virtually depleted of cells; (ii) the total numbers of thymocytes and splenocytes were reduced by 84 and 43%, respectively; (iii) although all populations of thymocytes and splenocytes were smaller, the thymic CD4(+)CD8(+) cells and the splenic B-lymphocytes were most decreased. These alterations resembled those evoked by analogous exposure to PFOA, but were less pronounced. At lower doses (less than 0.02%), PFOS induced hepatomegaly without affecting the thymus or spleen. Finally, comparison of male wild-type 129/Sv mice and the corresponding knock-outs lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) indicated that these effects of PFOS are not strain-dependent. More importantly, hepatomegaly is independent of PPARalpha, the thymic changes are partially dependent on this receptor, and splenic responses are largely eliminated in its absence. Thus, immunomodulation caused by PFOS is a high-dose phenomenon partially dependent on PPARalpha.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 260, no 1-3, 68-76 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34695DOI: 10.1016/j.tox.2009.03.009ISI: 000267161000009PubMedID: 19464571OAI: diva2:285313
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Immunohepatotoxicity of the persistent environmental pollutants perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunohepatotoxicity of the persistent environmental pollutants perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), manufactured for a variety of industrial and consumer applications, are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Their accumulation in humans and wildlife raises serious health concerns.

Here, we examined the potential effects of PFOA and PFOS on the innate immune system in mice. Short-term dietary exposure to high doses reduces the total number and subpopulations of circulating white blood cells. Moreover, production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow, but not in the spleen following exposure to in vitro or in vivo stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharides is enhanced. With respect to adaptive immunity, PFOS reduces the total numbers of thymocytes and splenocytes and subpopulations thereof in a dose dependent fashion. Furthermore, comparison of wild-type mice and the corresponding knock-out strain lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha revealed that these immunological changes are partially dependent on this receptor. Our further studies also show that sub-chronic dietary exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of PFOS does not alter the cellularity of the thymus and spleen and exerts no influence on humoral immune responses.

To facilitate examination of the effects of PFOA and PFOS on the hepatic immune system, we developed a procedure for mechanical disruption that yields a larger number of functionally competent immune cells from this organ. In our last study, lower doses of PFOA or PFOS induced hypertrophy of hepatocytes and altered the hepatic immune status. Thus, we find that short-term, high- and low-dose exposure of mice to these fluorochemicals is immunohepatotoxic.

Abstract [sv]

Perfluorooktanat (PFOA) och perfluorooktansulfonat (PFOS) som tillverkas för många olika industri och konsumentprodukter, är globalt förekommande miljögifter. Deras ackumulering i människor och djur ger upphov till en stark oro för hälsoproblem.

Vi har granskat effekterna av PFOA och PFOS på det medfödda, ospecifika immunförsvaret. Exponering för höga doser via maten under kort tid minskar det totala antalet cirkulerande vita blodkroppar samt delpopulationerna.. Immunsvaret ökar dock efter stimulering med bakteriella lipopolysaccharider både in vitro och in vivo , dvs produktionen av proinflammatoriska cytokiner av makrofager i bukhålan och benmärgen, men inte i mjälten ökar.. När det gäller adaptiv, specifik immunitet minskar PFOS det totala antalet tymocyter och splenocyter och deras olika subpopulationer. Vid exponering för lägre doser av PFOS induceras hepatomegali utan att påverka tymus eller mjälten.   Vi kunde visa att peroxisomal proliferator-aktiverad receptor-alfa medierar effekterna utav PFOS i tymus samt delar av effekterna av PFOS i mjälten genom att använda möss som saknade denna receptor. . Dettastöds av vår studie med subkronisk exponering för en miljömässig dos av PFOS vilken inte ändrade den cellulära sammansättningen i vare sig  tymus eller mjälte och inte hade  något inflytande på det humorala immunsvaret.

För att underlätta studier av hur PFOA och PFOS påverkar immunsystemet i levern utvecklade vi en metod för framrening av immunceller via mekanisk sönderdelning av levern, vilket gavett större antal av funktionella  immunceller från detta organ. I vår sista studie kunde vi påvisa att lägre doser av PFOA eller PFOS inducerade hypertrofi av hepatocyter samt en påverkan av leverns immunförsvar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 2011. 126 p.
Perfluorooctanoate, Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, Hepatomegaly, Immunotoxicity, Thymus, Spleen
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63180 (URN)978-91-7447-381-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-21, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2011-10-30 Created: 2011-10-11 Last updated: 2011-11-15Bibliographically approved

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