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Evaluation of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) and polydimethylsiloxane for equilibrium sampling of polar organic contaminants in water.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2009 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 9, 1874-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to develop a passive absorptive equilibrium sampler that would enable the determination of the concentrations of polar organic compound (POC) in water more efficiently than existing techniques. To this end, a novel plastic material, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) (PEVAC), was evaluated and the results were compared with an existing silicone-based passive absorptive equilibrium device. Seven compounds (imidacloprid, carbendazim, metoprolol, atrazin, carbamazepine, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos), a mixture of pharmaceuticals, and pesticides with a logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 4.77 were selected as model substances for the experiments. The results showed that six of the seven selected POCs reached distribution equilibrium within 4 d in the two materials tested. A linear relation with a regression coefficient of more than 0.8906 between the established logarithmic absorbent-water partition coefficient and the calculated logarithmic dissociation partition coefficient of the selected compounds in the two polymers was observed. The correlation between these two coefficients was within one order of magnitude for the compounds that reached equilibrium in the two polymers, which demonstrates that both materials are suitable for mimicking biological uptake of POCs. The PEVAC material showed an enhanced sorption for all selected compounds compared to the silicone material and up to five times higher enrichment for the most polar compound. Fluorescence analysis of the sampler cross-section, following the uptake of fluoranthene, and proof that the sorption was independent of surface area variations demonstrated that the PEVAC polymer possessed absorptive rather than adsorptive enrichment of organic compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 28, no 9, 1874-80 p.
Keyword [en]
Passive equilibrium sampler, Absorbent, Polar organic compounds, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34623DOI: 10.1897/09-036.1ISI: 000268876200011PubMedID: 19938334OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-34623DiVA: diva2:285314
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Methodologies to assess the fate of polar organic compounds in aquatic environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodologies to assess the fate of polar organic compounds in aquatic environments
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polar organic compounds (POCs) are chemicals with polar functional groups in their structure. The functional groups make the compounds hydrophilic and less prone to partition with biota. However, the knowledge of their fate is limited due to difficulties associated with their measurements. Although, the persistence of POCs in the environment is generally low, they are considered to be semi-persistent compounds due to their continuous introduction to the environment via wastewater. Studies have shown that complex mixtures of POCs of different classes may have synergistic toxic effects on biota at environmental concentration levels. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical methods in order to establish the occurrence and fate of POCs in aquatic environments.

In Study I, a positive correlation between the sorption of a novel poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) (PEVAC) material and the theoretical logarithmic dissociation partition coefficient (Log D) for seven POCs was observed. The PEVAC material showed an enhanced sorption of the POCs compared to the silicone material. Study II, demonstrated that the PEVAC sampler assess the freely dissolved concentration of POCs in aquatic environments. The results showed that the PEVAC polymer is an attractive alternative to silicone for mimicing the biological uptake of POCs in aquatic environments. Additionally, Study II showed that total extraction is appropriate for determination of the freely dissolved concentration of uncharged POCs with Log KOW < 2.67 in natural water.

In study III, a novel bag-solid phase extraction (bag-SPE) technique was compared to a conventional SPE-technique. Despite that the extraction efficiencies for POCs in wastewater were lower using the bag-SPE method, the two methods showed similar detection limits due to the lower ion-suppression experienced with the bag-SPE.

In study IV the bag-SPE method was further developed with the aim of lowering the detection limits for POCs. Detection limits (LOD) below 13 ng/L showed that the bag-SPE method was suitable for determination of POCs in surface sea water.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2010. 25 p.
Keyword
Passive equilibrium sampler, Absorbent, Polar organic compounds, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Partitioning coefficient, Fulvic acid, Sediment, PEVAC, Bag-SPE, Solid phase extraction, Pharmaceuticals, Wastewater, Sea water, UPLC-QToF
National Category
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-35552 (URN)978-91-7447-003-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-12, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
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This research was financially supported by European Union (European Commission, FP6 Contract No. 003956) “Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in the Environment” (NoMiracle) and by the Swedish research council Formas.
Available from: 2010-01-21 Created: 2010-01-18 Last updated: 2010-01-18Bibliographically approved

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