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Polybrominated and mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
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2009 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 21, 8245-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) have recently been found in the Baltic Sea at concentrations 1000 times above that of the chlorinated analogs (PCDDs), yet their sources are undefined. Marine production of organobrominated compounds by sponges is well documented. The objective of the current study was to investigate the potential for an aquatic sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis), common to the Baltic Sea, to produce PBDDs and other organobromine compounds in the field. Mono- to pentaBDDs as well as several mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Br/Cl-DDs), PCDDs and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were quantified in sponge from the SW Baltic. Concentrations of individual PBDDs in the range 1-80 ng per g extractable organic matter were similar as in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea and about 25 000 times higher than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time Br/Cl-DDs are reported in biota from a background environment. While this study does not point out sponges as a dominant source, the concentrations of PBDDs in sponge relative to related anthropogenic compounds such as PBDEs and PCDDs as well as the relative abundance of brominated dioxins and furans strengthens the idea of natural production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 43, no 21, 8245-50 p.
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34629DOI: 10.1021/es901705rISI: 000271106300045PubMedID: 19924951OAI: diva2:285317
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2010-05-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Identification of brominated organic compounds in aquatic biota and exploration of bromine isotope analysis for source apportionment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of brominated organic compounds in aquatic biota and exploration of bromine isotope analysis for source apportionment
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated organic compounds (BOCs) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are abundant in the environment. Most compounds are either clearly natural or clearly anthropogenic but some are of either mixed or uncertain origin. This thesis aims to identify some naturally produced BOCs and to develop a method for analysis of the bromine isotopic composition in BOCs found in the environment.

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) in the Baltic Sea are believed to be of natural origin although their source is unknown. Since marine sponges are major producers of brominated natural products in tropical waters, BOCs were quantified in a sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea (Paper I). The results showed that the sponge does not seem to be a major producer of PBDDs in the Baltic Sea. In this study, mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins were however discovered for the first time in a background environment without an apparent anthropogenic source.

The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is unusual in analytical environmental chemistry due to its sample requirements. Preparative capillary gas chromatography was used to isolate a sufficient amount of an unidentified BOC from northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) blubber (Paper II) to enable NMR analysis for identification of the compound.

The bromine isotopic composition of BOCs may give information on the origin and environmental fate of these compounds. The first steps in this process are the development of a method to determine the bromine isotope ratio in environmentally relevant BOCs (Paper III) and measuring the bromine isotope ratio of several standard substances to establish an anthropogenic endpoint (Paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2010. 58 p.
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), NMR spectroscopy, preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC), stable bromine isotope ratio, GC-multiple collector- ICP-MS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38871 (URN)978-91-7447-070-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-06-11, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-05-20 Created: 2010-05-03 Last updated: 2010-05-20Bibliographically approved

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Unger, MariaAsplund, LillemorGustafsson, Örjan
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