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On the structure of personality: Are there separate temperament and character factors?
University of Guelph, ON, Canada.
Umeå universitet.
Karolinska Institutet.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
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2009 (English)In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 47, no 3, 180-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a widely used measure of psychobiological aspects of personality. Theoretically, the TCI is defined as comprising four temperament and three character factors. Most previous examinations of the factor structure have used exploratory factor methods with mixed results. We used confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the TCI in a sample of 2423 adults aged 35–90 years (1093 women, 1330 men) from the Betula study. Support for the seven TCI factors was mixed. Models including second-order factors provided no evidence that the seven first-order TCI factors reflect higher-order temperament and character constructs. Our findings provide no support that individual differences on the seven first-order TCI factors reflect distinct temperament or character dimensions of personality. Whereas more complex modeling strategies rejected separate character and temperament models, the simultaneous (seven-factor) model, and the use of second-order factors; the harm avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperativeness factors were acceptable examined individually. Results for novelty seeking were marginal and self-transcendence, reward dependence and/or persistence factors were not acceptable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2009. Vol. 47, no 3, 180-184 p.
Keyword [en]
structural equation modelling, personality theory, lifespan development and aging
National Category
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34803DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.02.023ISI: 000267305000005OAI: diva2:285665

This research was supported by a grant from the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (1988-0082:17), Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research (D1988-0092, D1989-0115, D1990-0074, D1991-0258, D1992-0143, D1997-0756, D1997-1841, D1999-0739, B1999-474), Swedish Council for Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (F377/1988–2000), Swedish Council for Social Research (1988–1990: 88-0082, and 311/1991–2000). We would like to acknowledge the contribution by the staff in the Betula Project.

Available from: 2010-01-12 Created: 2010-01-12 Last updated: 2015-09-10Bibliographically approved

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Nisson, Lars-Göran
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