Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Essays in Empirical Labour Economics: Family Background, Gender and Earnings
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

All three essays in this thesis are concerned with the interrelation of family, gender and labour market outcomes.

The first paper investigates family earnings mobility between parents and sons, and parents and daughters, highlighting the role of assortative mating. The results suggest that daughters are more mobile than sons. I also find that Sweden has a higher degree of mobility compared to the U.S., and that assortative mating is an important underlying channel for earnings transmission. The difference in mobility between the two countries does not inherently depend on factors affecting the marriage match. Moreover, adult economic outcomes are more dependent on family background for those at the lower end of the earnings distribution.

The second study analyses the long-run effects of an increase in family size on the 1980-2005 labour market outcomes of Swedish men and women. The decision to have (more) children is dependent on current and future labour market prospects. I use the exogenous variations in the sex composition of the first two children to overcome this endogeneity problem. My findings suggest that having an additional child has a stronger negative impact on earnings than on participation. However, mothers experience a substantial but not complete long-term recovery in earnings.

The third paper illustrates the difficulty in disentangling the underlying channels of intergenerational earnings persistence using a path analysis model. On closer examination, such a model has a potential shortcoming since the covariates are correlated to other unobserved factors. The results suggest that education is the most influential mechanism in the earnings transmission process, while IQ, mental ability and BMI are of secondary importance. However, education is sensitive to the inclusion of other covariates and the order in which these are entered into the equation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Economics, Stockholm University , 2010. , 22 p.
Series
Swedish Institute for Social Research, ISSN 0283-8222 ; 79
Keyword [en]
Intergenerational mobility, Assortative mating, Nonlinearity, Female labour force participation, Sex-mix composition, Cognitive and non-cognitive abilities, Education
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-37073ISBN: 978-91-7447-015-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-37073DiVA: diva2:292783
Public defence
2010-03-19, hörsal 9, hus D, Universitetsvägen 10 D, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-02-25 Created: 2010-02-08 Last updated: 2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Intergenerational Earnings Mobility Among Daughters and Sons: Evidence from Sweden and a Comparison with the United States
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intergenerational Earnings Mobility Among Daughters and Sons: Evidence from Sweden and a Comparison with the United States
2008 (English)In: The American journal of economics and sociology, ISSN 0002-9246, E-ISSN 1536-7150, Vol. 67, no 5, 777-826 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper adopts Chadwick and Solon's (2002) model by using family earnings in the study of intergenerational earnings mobility with a highlight on the role of assortative mating. I analyze mean and quantile regression coefficients as well as transition matrices to investigate family earnings mobility between parents and daughters, and parents and sons from Swedish register data. My findings indicate that Sweden has a higher degree of mobility compared to the U.S., and that assortative mating also plays an important role as a channel through which income status is transmitted across generations in Sweden. However, the difference in intergenerational mobility patterns between the two countries does not, inherently, depend on factors that affect the marriage match. Swedish daughters and sons exhibit a rather similar scheme of intergenerational earnings transmission. Daughters tend to be slightly more mobile than sons and the difference between their elasticity estimates is small but statistically significant. The quantile regression approach reveals that parents' family earnings are less important as explanatory variable at the upper end of the children's earnings distribution than it is at the bottom, while transition matrices show substantial earnings persistence in the top earnings class.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, New Jersey: Blackwell-Wiley, 2008
Keyword
Assortative Mating, Quantile Regression, Transition Matrices
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-36898 (URN)10.1111/j.1536-7150.2008.00598.x (DOI)000261443100003 ()
Projects
Arbetsmarknadsekonomi
Available from: 2010-01-29 Created: 2010-01-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. The Effect of Children on Earnings Using Exogenous Variation in Family Size: Swedish Evidence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Children on Earnings Using Exogenous Variation in Family Size: Swedish Evidence
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses the impact of having one more child on the outcomes of men and women in the labour market. This issue is known to be complicated as the decision to have (more) children is also dependent on current and future labour market prospects. To overcome this endogeneity problem, I use the exogenous variations of sex composition of the first two children, an identification strategy originally applied by Angrist and Evans (1998) on U.S. data. I use a rich Swedish register data set to explore the effect of children on fathers' and mothers' labour market outcomes from 1980-2005, and separate the effects of children on participation and earnings. This study identifies long-run and short-run effects, and investigates whether the effects differ over time. This latter issue is particularly interesting for Sweden as family policies have changed significantly over the years. My findings suggest that having an additional child has a stronger negative impact on earnings than on participation. However, mothers experience a substantial but not complete recovery in earnings in the long-run. These results remain stable despite the rapid expansion of Swedish family policies.

Keyword
Female labour force participation, Family size, Exogenous variation
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-37278 (URN)
Available from: 2010-02-08 Created: 2010-02-08 Last updated: 2010-02-25Bibliographically approved
3. Accounting for Intergenerational Earnings Persistence: Can We Distinguish Between Education, Skills, and Health?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounting for Intergenerational Earnings Persistence: Can We Distinguish Between Education, Skills, and Health?
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper illustrates the difficulty in disentangling the underlying channels of intergenerational earnings persistence by means of path analysis and recursive models. On closer examination, these models manifest their shortcomings as regards accounting for how parental earnings have a direct impact on their offspring's earnings, but also have an effect through other factors such as education, skills and health. The estimated effects of these mediating factors are likely to capture the influence of other mechanisms not taken into account in the analysis. Nonetheless, the results suggest that education is the most important mechanism in the earnings transmission process, although it is sensitive to the inclusion of other covariates and the order in which these are entered into the equation. Nonlinear specifications suggest that the effect of a father's earnings on his son's has the greatest impact primarily through education and IQ in the upper middle categories of the earnings distribution of the fathers, while health status is of secondary importance.

 

Keyword
Cognitive and non-cognitive skills, Spline regression, Path analysis, Education
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-37279 (URN)
Available from: 2010-02-08 Created: 2010-02-08 Last updated: 2010-02-25Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(236 kB)642 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 236 kBChecksum SHA-512
48928299e4f4526a2fd1aa4a2d4f4438b96f12c5641e418c4f589e7e7130a641fa9149f4ab84bda4df05f4cd4c927e12e8a0d1221aa83362fc71290c861eb4b7
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hirvonen, Lalaina
By organisation
Department of EconomicsThe Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI)
Economics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 642 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 458 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf