Samtalet i studie- och yrkesvägledningsprocessen
1997 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)Alternative title
The interview in the career counselling process (English)
This study concerns the counselling interviews that take place in school between the guidance counsellor and student clients for the purpose of helping the clients make career choices. The main aim is to describe this encounter, with particular reference to the clients' possibility to make themselves heard. The interview sessions are analysed in accordance with three perspectives: the intentional, the interactional and the societal/institutional.
The empirical data consists of seven video-recorded counselling sessions with students during their final year of the nine-year Swedish compulsory school. Additional data were obtained through tape-recorded interviews and stimulated recall sessions with comments by the actors.
What would appear to be a process of making choices on rational grounds is shown to contain aspects of a more existential nature, as revealed through the clients' projects. By projects here is meant the meaning that can be ascribed to the participants actions. Diverse projects for obtaining and imparting information are mixed with more personal projects. Although the counsellors' individual projects tend to dominate the interview, there is room for the projects of both parties and clients can, at least to some extent, make themselves heard.
Clients receive answers to their explicit questions, and also information they did not ask for. Whether this combination helps them to deal with their real problems depends on the counsellor's projects, strategy for selecting information, communicative competence, and knowledge of the field. The official goals do not in themselves constitute a hindrance to the client's possibility to make himself/herself heard, but the counsellor's interpretation of the goals and the schools' implementation of them may do so. The goals leave ample room for individual interpretation. The information most clients receive regarding education, occupations and working-life is a mixture of what they consider realistic but also what officialdom considers realistic, and clients are given little help to distinguish between these two perspectives. At the same time it is stressed that they must decide for themselves. Studies, educational programmes and admittance to upper secondary school are the dominating themes in the information provided. This information corresponds to one need of clients, but also shows that counselling interviews have an instrumental function.
Two main strategies for selecting information were found: the exploratory and the informational. The informational strategy can be divided into two substrategies: giving the information asked for and giving information not asked for. Most often there is mixture of both strategies even if the focus is usually on one. It is only when counsellors use the exploratory strategy that the clients' needs can be fully expressed. The counsellor's communicative competence may be of crucial importance for the client's possibility to make himself/herself heard.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm (LHS) , 1997. , 370 p.
Studies in educational sciences, ISSN 1400-478X ; 12
Research subject Education
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-37172ISBN: 91-7656-422-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-37172DiVA: diva2:293936
1998-02-06, Sal H303, Lärarhögskolan, Rålambsvägen 24-30, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Ekholm, Mats, Professor