Seasonal polyphenism in life history traits: Time costs of direct development in a butterfly
2010 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 64, 1377-1383 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Insects with two or more generations per year will generally experience different selection regimes depending on the season, and accordingly show seasonal polyphenisms. In butterflies, seasonal polyphenism has been shown with respect to morphology, life history characteristics and behaviour. In temperate bivoltine species, the directly developing generation is more time-constrained than the diapause generation and this may affect various life history traits, such as mating propensity (time from eclosion to mating). Here we test whether mating propensity differs between generations in Pieris napi, along with several physiological parameters, for males sex pheromone synthesis, and for females ovigeny index and fecundity.
As predicted, individuals of the directly developing generation – who have shorter time for pupal development - are more immature at eclosion; males take longer to synthesize the male sex pheromone after eclosion and also take longer to mate than diapause generation males. Females show the same physiological pattern, the directly developing females lay fewer eggs than diapausing females during the first days of their life. Nevertheless, the directly developing females mate faster after eclosion than diapausing females, indicating substantial adult time stress in this generation and possibly an adaptive value of shortening the pre-reproductive period.
Our study highlights how time-stress can be predictably different between generations, affecting both life history and behaviour. By analyzing several life history traits simultaneously we adopt a multi-trait approach to examining how adaptations and developmental constraints likely interplay to shape these seasonal polyphenisms.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer , 2010. Vol. 64, 1377-1383 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38148DOI: 10.1007/s00265-010-0952-xISI: 000280842600002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-38148DiVA: diva2:306280
Author count:6;2010-03-292010-03-292014-10-28Bibliographically approved