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Perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation and parasite infestation in a field population of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis after microcosm exposure
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
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2010 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 98, no 1, 99-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the focus of intense toxicity research due to its persistence and widespread occurrence in biota. Studies on benthic invertebrates have shown them to be subjects of high PFOS exposure. However, effects on benthic invertebrates exposed to PFOS in the field are still far from elucidated. To fill a knowledge gap on concentrations and effects in benthic invertebrates, a microcosm study on the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis was performed. Field collected M. affinis were analysed for PFOS and showed average background concentrations 39 and 58 ng/g (wet weight) in two different samplings. The field collected animals were exposed to three concentrations of PFOS (50, 200 and 5000 μg PFOS/L water) for 3 weeks during gonad development. Body burdens of PFOS were determined after experiment termination. Results showed negative effects on survival and reproduction effects such as decreased sexual maturation and decreased oocyte viability caused by PFOS exposure. Additionally, a follow-up experiment demonstrated a significant increase in the infection incidence by a microsporidian muscle parasite in animals exposed to PFOS at tissue concentrations in the range of concentrations found in field collected benthic amphipods. This is the first study to demonstrate increased microsporidian infection with pollutant exposure and it suggests that ecologically relevant PFOS concentrations could be sufficient to elicit these effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 98, no 1, 99-106 p.
Keyword [en]
Amphipod parasite perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS microcosm Monoporeia affinis
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38296DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.01.017ISI: 000278506900013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-38296DiVA: diva2:309531
Available from: 2010-04-07 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Assessing environmental and contaminant stressors in a benthic amphipod
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing environmental and contaminant stressors in a benthic amphipod
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organisms in the aquatic environment encounter numerous stressors throughout their lifespan. Some of them are biotic such as food availability, predators and parasites. Others are abiotic and include shifting salinity and temperature change among others. Stressors with anthropogenic origin (for example pollution) add to these challenges and can interfere with the organisms´ ability to adapt, survive and successfully reproduce. This thesis focuses on the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis and how it responds to environmental (food availability and increased temperature) and contaminant (fenarimol, PFOS and TBT) stressors. M. affinis is a key species in the soft bottoms of the Baltic Sea and inland lakes in Scandinavia. It is considered particularly sensitive to contaminant exposure, especially during the reproduction. The animals were exposed to both single and combined stressors in soft-bottom microcosms during sexual maturation and mating.  Adverse effects on survival and reproduction as well as parasite infection, hormonal status and protein damage were analyzed and evaluated for potential population effects and any synergisms between stressors. Results from these studies give support to M. affinis being a sensitive crustacean in terms of contaminant stress. Female sexual maturation is reliant on sufficient food availability and sexual maturation in both sexes is vulnerable to increased water temperatures affecting reproduction fitness. Increased water temperature also acts synergistically with contaminant stress in decreasing the amount of viable eggs and embryos. Ecologically realistic concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and tributyltin (TBT) severely increase the number of parasite infected animals. These results indicate that the M. affinis populations in the field could be adversely affected by pollutant exposure. Effects that could be enhanced by the predicted increase in water temperature due to global warming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2010. 50 p.
Keyword
Multiple stressors, Reproduction, Temperature, Food, Parasites, Fenarimol, PFOS, TBT, Endocrine disruption, Ecdysteroids, Microsporidia, Microcosm, Crustacea, Amhipoda, Monoporeia affinis
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38306 (URN)978-91-7447-042-0, pp1-50 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-07, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-04-15 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2010-04-08Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Swedish Biota : Temporal trends, tissue distribution and toxicity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Swedish Biota : Temporal trends, tissue distribution and toxicity
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are found in high concentrations in top predators worldwide, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the predominant compound. Due to concerns regarding toxicity and persistence of PFOS, this compound was included in the Stockholm convention of persistent organic pollutants in 2009.

PFAS differ from other persistent organic pollutants in their physicochemical properties and as a result their environmental fate is insufficiently understood. The focus of this thesis was to learn more on the environmental fate of PFAS by analysis of 15 different PFAS in Swedish biota. Analytes included perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs; carbon chain lengths C6-C15), perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8, C10), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA).

Elevated concentrations of PFAS were found in the marine, terrestrial and limnic Swedish environment, exemplified by Baltic common guillemot (Uria aalge), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and the amphipod Monoporeia affinis. PFOS was the predominant PFAS in the species. Analysis of archived material showed that PFOS concentration had increased 30-fold in guillemot eggs since 1968. PFOS concentration in peregrine falcon eggs had increased from 1974 to the mid 1980s and then leveled off, while PFCA in the falcon eggs showed an exponential increase until recent years. The relation between PFAS concentrations in egg and in tissue from adult guillemot showed that PFAS had different potentials for transfer to the egg, depending on chain length and functional group.

The toxicological implications of PFAS pollution in the Swedish environment are not known but the high concentrations of PFOS in the Baltic guillemot eggs are of concern. Recent toxicological studies show toxic effects of PFOS in concentrations close to, or below the concentrations reported in this thesis. The margins of safety seem to be higher for the PFCAs, although toxicity data are scarce.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2010. 43 p.
Keyword
Environmental chemistry, PFOS, PFAS, pollutant, Baltic guillemot, peregrine falcon, Monoporeia affinis, time trend, toxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34181 (URN)978-91-7155-998-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-19, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-01-28 Created: 2010-01-07 Last updated: 2010-04-08Bibliographically approved

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