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Assessing environmental and contaminant stressors in a benthic amphipod
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organisms in the aquatic environment encounter numerous stressors throughout their lifespan. Some of them are biotic such as food availability, predators and parasites. Others are abiotic and include shifting salinity and temperature change among others. Stressors with anthropogenic origin (for example pollution) add to these challenges and can interfere with the organisms´ ability to adapt, survive and successfully reproduce. This thesis focuses on the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis and how it responds to environmental (food availability and increased temperature) and contaminant (fenarimol, PFOS and TBT) stressors. M. affinis is a key species in the soft bottoms of the Baltic Sea and inland lakes in Scandinavia. It is considered particularly sensitive to contaminant exposure, especially during the reproduction. The animals were exposed to both single and combined stressors in soft-bottom microcosms during sexual maturation and mating.  Adverse effects on survival and reproduction as well as parasite infection, hormonal status and protein damage were analyzed and evaluated for potential population effects and any synergisms between stressors. Results from these studies give support to M. affinis being a sensitive crustacean in terms of contaminant stress. Female sexual maturation is reliant on sufficient food availability and sexual maturation in both sexes is vulnerable to increased water temperatures affecting reproduction fitness. Increased water temperature also acts synergistically with contaminant stress in decreasing the amount of viable eggs and embryos. Ecologically realistic concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and tributyltin (TBT) severely increase the number of parasite infected animals. These results indicate that the M. affinis populations in the field could be adversely affected by pollutant exposure. Effects that could be enhanced by the predicted increase in water temperature due to global warming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2010. , 50 p.
Keyword [en]
Multiple stressors, Reproduction, Temperature, Food, Parasites, Fenarimol, PFOS, TBT, Endocrine disruption, Ecdysteroids, Microsporidia, Microcosm, Crustacea, Amhipoda, Monoporeia affinis
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38306ISBN: 978-91-7447-042-0, pp1-50 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-38306DiVA: diva2:309648
Public defence
2010-05-07, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-04-15 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2010-04-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Combined effects of temperature and a pesticide on the Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined effects of temperature and a pesticide on the Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis
2008 (English)In: Aquatic Biology, ISSN 1864-7782, Vol. 1, 269-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
Monoporeia affinis, Endocrine disruption, Fenarimol, Temperature, HSP60, Reproduction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-18912 (URN)10.3354/ab00028 (DOI)000259452300007 ()
Available from: 2009-02-16 Created: 2009-02-16 Last updated: 2010-04-08Bibliographically approved
2. Reproductive effects of the endocirne disruptor fenarimol on a baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reproductive effects of the endocirne disruptor fenarimol on a baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis
2006 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 4, 1126-1131 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An endocrine disruptor, the fungicide fenarimol, was investigated regarding its effects on reproduction and hormone (ecdysteroid) levels in the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis. In addition, the influence of food shortage, both by itself and in combination with fenarimol, on reproduction was examined. Field-collected amphipods were exposed in flow-through microcosms during the period of sexual maturation and mating in four treatment series: Control with low food, fenarimol with low food, control with high food, and fenarimol with high food. Fenarimol was added at a concentration of 0.3 mg/L in two pulses/week. Results show that fenarimol has a negative effect on fertilization rate and male mating ability. Results were supported by a tendency toward delayed male sexual development. Food shortage decreased weight in both sexes and retarded female oocyte development. Higher ecdysteroid levels were recorded in males than in females, and food shortage increased male ecdysteroid levels. No effect of fenarimol exposure on ecdysteroid levels was observed. No synergistic effects of fenarimol and food shortage could be distinguished in any variable examined. Thus, M. affinis was vulnerable to reproductive impairment by fenarimol, with effects on the next generation (i.e., a disturbed sexual development and fertilization ability). Food shortage has negative effects on M. affinis, but it does not enhance the effects of fenarimol.

Keyword
Monoporeia affinis, Fenarimol, Food availability, Ecdysteroids, Reproductive disorders
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38292 (URN)10.1897/04-610R1.1 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-04-07 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation and parasite infestation in a field population of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis after microcosm exposure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation and parasite infestation in a field population of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis after microcosm exposure
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 98, no 1, 99-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the focus of intense toxicity research due to its persistence and widespread occurrence in biota. Studies on benthic invertebrates have shown them to be subjects of high PFOS exposure. However, effects on benthic invertebrates exposed to PFOS in the field are still far from elucidated. To fill a knowledge gap on concentrations and effects in benthic invertebrates, a microcosm study on the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis was performed. Field collected M. affinis were analysed for PFOS and showed average background concentrations 39 and 58 ng/g (wet weight) in two different samplings. The field collected animals were exposed to three concentrations of PFOS (50, 200 and 5000 μg PFOS/L water) for 3 weeks during gonad development. Body burdens of PFOS were determined after experiment termination. Results showed negative effects on survival and reproduction effects such as decreased sexual maturation and decreased oocyte viability caused by PFOS exposure. Additionally, a follow-up experiment demonstrated a significant increase in the infection incidence by a microsporidian muscle parasite in animals exposed to PFOS at tissue concentrations in the range of concentrations found in field collected benthic amphipods. This is the first study to demonstrate increased microsporidian infection with pollutant exposure and it suggests that ecologically relevant PFOS concentrations could be sufficient to elicit these effects.

Keyword
Amphipod parasite perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS microcosm Monoporeia affinis
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38296 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.01.017 (DOI)000278506900013 ()
Available from: 2010-04-07 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Low dose TBT exposure decreases amphipod immunocompetence and reproductive fitness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low dose TBT exposure decreases amphipod immunocompetence and reproductive fitness
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecotoxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38297 (URN)
Available from: 2010-04-07 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2010-04-08Bibliographically approved

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