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Temporal Variations of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Methoxylated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Fish Revealing Large Differences in Exposure and Metabolic Stability
Umeå universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
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2010 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, 2466-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated methoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were investigated in perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from a Baltic Sea background contaminated area between 1990 and 2005. No temporal trend was found, but large variations were observed - up to 5-fold and 160-fold differences in MeO-PBDE and PBDD concentrations, respectively - between consecutive years, suggesting that retention of these compounds, particularly the PBDDs, is limited. Examination of the congener profiles using principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis indicated that MeO-PBDEs without adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE47) or with two adjacent substituents (2'-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE90) are retained more than MeO-PBDEs with three adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99) and that 1,3,6,8-tetraBDD and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD are retained more than the other PBDDs which have vicinal hydrogen. Debromination could explain the limited retention of 6-MeO-PBDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99 and the absence of 2-MeO-BDE123 and 6-MeO-BDE137, and cytochrome P-450 mediated oxidation could explain the limited retention of PBDDs containing vicinal hydrogen. The levels of organobromines, especially MeO-PBDEs, were found to covary with water conditions related to primary production, for example temperature, depth visibility, and inorganic nutrient concentrations, which also favor fish productivity. The results suggest natural production of MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs and imply that they fluctuate considerably over time, as do common marine toxins in fish. Thus, assessments of human and environmental risk should consider both the average and peak concentrations of these contaminants in marine biota.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 44, no 7, 2466-73 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38578DOI: 10.1021/es9038006ISI: 000275993700039PubMedID: 20180550OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-38578DiVA: diva2:310959
Available from: 2010-04-19 Created: 2010-04-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Trends and exposure of naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic biota - with focus on OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends and exposure of naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic biota - with focus on OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The semi-enclosed and brackish Baltic Sea has become heavily polluted by nutrients, anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals via human activities. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been thoroughly investigated due to their linkage to toxic effects observed in Baltic biota. There has been far less focus on semi-persistent pollutants e.g. naturally produced oraganohalogen compounds (NOCs) and their disturbances in the environment. This thesis is aimed on assessment of levels and trends of naturally produced brominated compounds in Baltic biota; more specifically on hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs). These, NOCs, may originate from production in algae and cyanobacteria. OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs may also be formed as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), i.e. well-known commercial flame retardants.

High levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are shown within Baltic biota (cyanobacteria, algae, mussels, fish), often in much higher concentrations than PBDEs which are possible anthropogenic precursors of OH- and MeO-PBDEs. The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are higher in the Baltic Sea than on the west coast of Sweden. Temporal and seasonal variations show fluctuations in concentrations of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs, possibly related with macroalgal life-cycles. OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are present in several filamentous macroalgae species, but considering the levels quantified, the time of peak exposure and the species life-cycle the macroalgae, Pilayella, Ceramium and Cladophora are suggested as major natural producers of OH-PBDEs and PBDDs.

The high levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs in the Baltic Sea may affect numerous organisms in the ecosystem. The toxic effects of OH-PBDEs and PBDDs are of particular concern. This thesis stress the importance of assessing and monitoring these substances, since the exposure to OH-PBDEs and PBDDs, during summer, may cause acute effects in Baltic fish and wildlife.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2011. 70 p.
Keyword
Batlic Sea, Natural production, OH-PBDE, MeO-PBDE, PBDD
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54421 (URN)978-91-7447-266-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-04, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: In press. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2011-02-10 Created: 2011-02-01 Last updated: 2011-02-03Bibliographically approved

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