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Climbing the Trichoptera Tree: Investigations of Branches and Leaves
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Trichoptera (caddisflies) is the largest of the primary aquatic insect orders, currently including more than 13,500 species. With more than 100 species new to science described annually, the known caddisfly diversity is rapidly increasing. In the first four papers of this Thesis, a total of 22 species new to science are described. The first three papers include revisions of the New Caledonian species for the genera Symphitoneuria, Gracilipsodes and Triplectides, with descriptions of 3, 7 and 11 new species, respectively. In these papers I strengthen our image of New Caledonia as a biodiversity hotspot. The fourth paper describes a new genus and species from Madagascar, another biodiversity hotspot. These four papers all deal with species and genera of the family Leptoceridae, which ranks among the three largest families within Trichoptera. The family comprises high species diversity together with a widespread distribution and has been of interest to many trichopterologists. However, the classification used for genera and tribes within the family follows a phylogenetic hypothesis from 1981. In paper V I apply a molecular approach for hypothesising phylogenetic relationships within the family, revealing support for the erection of two tribes to subfamily level and for the synonymisations of 2 pairs of genera. At order level, the progress of illuminating the evolutionary history of Trichoptera is advancing with recent analyses using molecular based data. Previously published phylogenetic hypotheses of the order were to a large degree dependent on ribosomal DNA, a source of molecular data not without its controversies, particularly regarding alignment procedures. Paper VI presents Trichoptera phylogenies based on sequences of protein-coding nuclear and mitochondrial genes. My results correspond well to previously published hypotheses among suborder relationships, but show additional and contrasting resolution within suborders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University , 2010. , 26 p.
Keyword [en]
Trichoptera, Leptoceridae, Symphitoneuria, Gracilipsodes, Triplectides, morphology, DNA, systematics, phylogeny, New Caledonia, Madagascar, new species, new genus
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38583ISBN: 978-91-7447-033-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-38583DiVA: diva2:310967
Public defence
2010-05-21, Lilla Hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Frescativägen 40, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript. Paper 6: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-04-28 Created: 2010-04-19 Last updated: 2010-04-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Three new species of Symphitoneuria Ulmer (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three new species of Symphitoneuria Ulmer (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera, 2007, 181-190 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three new species of Symphitoneuria Ulmer (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia are described and illustrated. These are Symphitoneuria lacsiensis, new species, Symphitoneuria digitata, new species and Symphitoneuria triangulata, new species. Together with these the genus now holds 11 species, and the New Caledonian Symphitoneuria now consists of 5 species, including the previously described Symphitoneuria licmetica Neboiss and Symphitoneuria clara Ward. A key to the males of the New Caledonian Symphitoneuria species is provided.

Keyword
Trichoptera, Leptoceridae, Symphitoneuria, lacsiensis, digitata, triangulata, new species, New
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-15065 (URN)978-0-9667982-4-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2010-04-19Bibliographically approved
2. Revision of the New Caledonian endemic genus Gracilipsodes (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Grumichellini)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revision of the New Caledonian endemic genus Gracilipsodes (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Grumichellini)
2008 (English)In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 153, no 3, 425-452 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The taxonomy and systematics of the New Caledonian endemic caddisfly genus Gracilipsodes Sykora, 1967 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae: Grumichellini) are reviewed. Seven new species represented by males are described and illustrated: Gracilipsodes aoupiniensis sp. nov., Gracilipsodes aureus sp. nov., Gracilipsodes aurorus sp. nov., Gracilipsodes grandis sp. nov., Gracilipsodes koghiensis sp. nov., Gracilipsodes lanceolatus sp. nov., and Gracilipsodes robustus sp. nov. Molecular phylogenetic analyses are applied to discern the relationships among the species of the genus and their closest relatives, based on sequence characters from the nuclear gene translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and the three mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I (COI), COII, and ribosomal large subunit (16S). The data are analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian inference, revealing a monophyletic Gracilipsodes with the eastern Australian monotypic genus Triplexa as its closest relative. Gracilipsodes is in turn divided into two major lineages.

Keyword
16S, COI, COII, EF-1α, Gracilipsodes, New Caledonia, new species, phylogeny
National Category
Biological Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-14629 (URN)10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00403.x (DOI)000256971500002 ()
Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Description of eleven new Triplectides species (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Description of eleven new Triplectides species (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from New Caledonia
2008 (English)In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5334, no 1816, 1-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Oceanian country of New Caledonia has been shown to have a great diversity of Trichoptera, but prior to this work only 3 species from the large Leptoceridae genus Triplectides were known from there. Extensive sampling on the main island, Grande Terre, revealed 11 new species in the genus, as well as a male of the seemingly widespread species Triplectides australis. These 11 new species are here described and illustrated, and a key to males of the New Caledonian Triplectides species is provided. The new species are: T. mouiensis, new species; T. abnormalis, new species; T. minutus,new species; T. noumeiensis, new species; T. tigrinus, new species; T. koghiensis, new species; T. wardi, new species; T. nathaliae, new species; T. mariannae, new species; T. dawnae, new species; T. aequalichelatus, new species. Fifteen species within the genus are now known from New Caledonia; relative to land mass, this is a high diversity compared to the 25 species recorded from Australia.

Keyword
Trichoptera, Leptoceridae, Triplectides, new species, New Caledonia
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-15064 (URN)000257321300001 ()
Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2010-04-19Bibliographically approved
4. Madagacerina, a new genus of Leptoceridae (Trichoptera) from Madagascar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Madagacerina, a new genus of Leptoceridae (Trichoptera) from Madagascar
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The caddisfly genus Madagacerina, new genus (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) is described for the Madagascaran species Madagacerina forcipata, new species. The genus is characterised by having the tibial spur formula 2, 2, 2; wings with sessile bifurcation of M; genitalia with preanal appendages fused with segment IX and greatly produced posterad, and a tergum X with an anteriorly extended ventral base articulating with a sclerotised spine-like process of the phallic shield. The new genus is most closely related to Blyzophilus, and placed in the tribe Blyzophilini. With this generic addition, the Madagascaran Leptoceridae fauna includes 8 genera.

Keyword
Leptocerinae; Blyzophilini; Madagacerina; forcipata; new genus; new species
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38568 (URN)
Available from: 2010-04-19 Created: 2010-04-19 Last updated: 2010-04-19Bibliographically approved
5. A new classification of the long-horned caddisflies (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) based on molecular data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new classification of the long-horned caddisflies (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) based on molecular data
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background

The Leptoceridae is among the three largest families within the order Trichoptera (caddisflies). The current classification is founded on a phylogenetic work from the 1980’s, mainly based on morphological characters from adult males, i.e. wing venation, tibial spur formula and genital morphology. In order to get a second opinion about the relationships within the family, we have undertaken a molecular study of the family based on sequences from five genes; one mitochondrial and four nuclear. 

Results

The resulting phylogenetical hypotheses are more or less congruent with the morphologically based classification, with most genera and tribes recovered as monophyletic, but with some major differences. For monophyly of the two subfamilies Triplectidinae and Leptoceriane, one tribe of each had to be removed and erected to subfamily status and the monophyly of some genera and tribes have to be questioned. All clades but the subfamily Leptocerinae were stable across different analysis methods, results presumably based on the taxon sampling.

Conclusions

With support from the results obtained here we erect the tribes Grumichellini and Leptorussini to subfamily status, Grumichellinae and Leptorussinae, respectively. We are also confident in the discovery of a few non-valid genera that are synonymised, e.g. Ptochoecetis with Oecetis and Condocerus with Hudsonema.

National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38579 (URN)
Available from: 2010-04-19 Created: 2010-04-19 Last updated: 2010-04-19Bibliographically approved
6. Highlighting the Trichoptera tree with new molecular markers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highlighting the Trichoptera tree with new molecular markers
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We here present phylogenetic hypotheses of the insect order Trichoptera, based on molecular data from four nuclear protein-coding genes, Cadherin-like gene (CAD), Elongation-factor 1 alpha (EF1a), Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and RNA polymerase II (POL), and the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Ribosomal RNA and morphological characters have previously been widely used for reconstructing phylogenetic hypothesis at order level among insects, but were excluded from this study in order to explore the potential of only using easily amplified and aligned protein-coding genes in resolving phylogenies of this level. Analyses were performed to investigate the signal and contribution of each gene in light of the final phylogeny derived from combined data. The study is based on 139 specimens from 46 families of the order Trichoptera, as well as 10 outgroup taxa from the sistergroup Lepidoptera. The results show great similarities to previously published phylogenies mainly based on rRNA and morphology, but differ from those in some interesting aspects. The CAD, IDH and COI genes provided strong signal to the phylogeny, whereas EF1a and POL provided less strong signal, but nevertheless did all the genes contribute well to the combined data phylogenies.

National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38580 (URN)
Available from: 2010-04-19 Created: 2010-04-19 Last updated: 2010-04-19Bibliographically approved

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