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Identification of brominated organic compounds in aquatic biota and exploration of bromine isotope analysis for source apportionment
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brominated organic compounds (BOCs) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are abundant in the environment. Most compounds are either clearly natural or clearly anthropogenic but some are of either mixed or uncertain origin. This thesis aims to identify some naturally produced BOCs and to develop a method for analysis of the bromine isotopic composition in BOCs found in the environment.

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) in the Baltic Sea are believed to be of natural origin although their source is unknown. Since marine sponges are major producers of brominated natural products in tropical waters, BOCs were quantified in a sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea (Paper I). The results showed that the sponge does not seem to be a major producer of PBDDs in the Baltic Sea. In this study, mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins were however discovered for the first time in a background environment without an apparent anthropogenic source.

The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is unusual in analytical environmental chemistry due to its sample requirements. Preparative capillary gas chromatography was used to isolate a sufficient amount of an unidentified BOC from northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) blubber (Paper II) to enable NMR analysis for identification of the compound.

The bromine isotopic composition of BOCs may give information on the origin and environmental fate of these compounds. The first steps in this process are the development of a method to determine the bromine isotope ratio in environmentally relevant BOCs (Paper III) and measuring the bromine isotope ratio of several standard substances to establish an anthropogenic endpoint (Paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University , 2010. , 58 p.
Keyword [en]
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), NMR spectroscopy, preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC), stable bromine isotope ratio, GC-multiple collector- ICP-MS
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38871ISBN: 978-91-7447-070-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-38871DiVA: diva2:317117
Public defence
2010-06-11, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-05-20 Created: 2010-05-03 Last updated: 2010-05-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Polybrominated and mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated and mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea
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2009 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 21, 8245-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) have recently been found in the Baltic Sea at concentrations 1000 times above that of the chlorinated analogs (PCDDs), yet their sources are undefined. Marine production of organobrominated compounds by sponges is well documented. The objective of the current study was to investigate the potential for an aquatic sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis), common to the Baltic Sea, to produce PBDDs and other organobromine compounds in the field. Mono- to pentaBDDs as well as several mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Br/Cl-DDs), PCDDs and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were quantified in sponge from the SW Baltic. Concentrations of individual PBDDs in the range 1-80 ng per g extractable organic matter were similar as in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea and about 25 000 times higher than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time Br/Cl-DDs are reported in biota from a background environment. While this study does not point out sponges as a dominant source, the concentrations of PBDDs in sponge relative to related anthropogenic compounds such as PBDEs and PCDDs as well as the relative abundance of brominated dioxins and furans strengthens the idea of natural production.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34629 (URN)10.1021/es901705r (DOI)000271106300045 ()19924951 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2010-05-18Bibliographically approved
2. Characaterization of an abundant and novel methyl- and methoxy-substituted brominated diphenyl ether isolated from whale blubber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characaterization of an abundant and novel methyl- and methoxy-substituted brominated diphenyl ether isolated from whale blubber
2010 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 4, 408-413 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A previously unidentified yet abundant substituted polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was isolated from a northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) found dead in the Skagerrak, North Sea. A combination of gas chromatography, high and low resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) (1H, 1H–1H and 1H–13C) after isolation with preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) lead to the identification of the unknown substance as 6-MeO-5-Me-2,2′,3,4′-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (6-MeO-5-Me-BDE42). To our knowledge this is only the second time PCGC has been used to isolate individual organohalogen compounds present in trace amounts for identification with NMR. The concentration of this novel bioaccumulated compound was estimated to be about 100 ng g−1 lipid, which was 2.5 times higher compared with the most abundant MeO-PBDE congeners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keyword
Preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC), Natural brominated compounds, 6-MeO-5-Me-2, 2', 3, 4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (6-MeO-5Me-BDE42), 2-(2, 4-dibromophenoxy)-6-methyl-dibromoanisole, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-38971 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.01.067 (DOI)000277110600009 ()
Available from: 2010-05-05 Created: 2010-05-05 Last updated: 2011-11-23Bibliographically approved
3. Compound-specific bromine isotope analysis of brominated diphenyl ethers using GC-multiple collector-ICPMS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compound-specific bromine isotope analysis of brominated diphenyl ethers using GC-multiple collector-ICPMS
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-39114 (URN)
Available from: 2010-05-07 Created: 2010-05-07 Last updated: 2010-05-18Bibliographically approved
4. Compound-specific bromine isotope composition of natural and industrially-synthesized organobromine substances
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compound-specific bromine isotope composition of natural and industrially-synthesized organobromine substances
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-39338 (URN)
Available from: 2010-05-18 Created: 2010-05-18 Last updated: 2010-05-18Bibliographically approved

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