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The tectonic evolution of northwest Svalbard
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. (PetroTectonics Centre)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Svalbard represents the uplifted and exhumed northwest corner of the Barents Sea Shelf. Pre-Carboniferous rocks of Svalbard are divided into the Eastern, Northwestern and Southwestern Terranes, were amalgamated during the Caledonian Orogen and are separated by north-south-trending strike-slip faults. Even though our knowledge of Svalbard’s pre-Carboniferous history has increased dramatically during the last two decades, a major issue remains: Where did the different tectonostratigraphic terranes of Svalbard originate? The answer to this question has profound significance for the entire eastern Laurentian margin, which spans two supercontinent cycles, from the amalgamation and breakup of Rodinia to the amalgamation of Pangea. This thesis constrains the tectonothermal evolution of Svalbard’s Northwestern Terrane (NWT) using ion microprobe and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon geochronology and electron microprobe thermobarometry on metasediments, clastic rocks and granitoids. Detrital zircon age populations of metasediments from the NWT suggests that they (e.g. the Krossfjorden Group) were deposited at c. 1000 Ma in a remnant ocean basin setting outboard the Eastern Grenville Province and were subsequently deformed and intruded by Late Grenvillian granitoids during the final suturing of Rodinia. Thus, a northern branch of the Grenvillian/Sveconorwegian orogeny is not present. This older history of the NWT is extensively overprinted by Late Caledonian deformation and metamorphism, with peak metamorphic conditions of 850 °C at >6 kbars, and subsequent migmatization of the Krossfjorden Group at c. 420 Ma. Based on these data, together with the detrital zircon age population from overlying Late Silurian-Early Devonian clastic rocks, a unifying model is proposed involving fragments from the Grampian orogen and Avalonian crust originally accreted to the Laurentian margin, subsequently transported northwards along sinistral strike-slip faults during Scandian deformation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University , 2010. , 22 p.
Series
Meddelanden från Stockholms universitets institution för geologiska vetenskaper, 339
Keyword [en]
Svalbard, Rodinia, Laurentia, Zircon, Provenance, Migmatites, Clockwise P-T
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-39364ISBN: 978-91-7447-056-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-39364DiVA: diva2:319611
Public defence
2010-06-24, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 4: In press.Available from: 2010-05-23 Created: 2010-05-18 Last updated: 2010-08-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Timing of migmatization and granite genesis of the Northwestern Terrane, Svalbard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timing of migmatization and granite genesis of the Northwestern Terrane, Svalbard
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Journal of the Geological Society, ISSN 0016-7649, E-ISSN 2041-479X, Vol. 166, 147-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

U–Pb ion microprobe investigations of zircons from gneisses, granites and migmatites of the pre-Devonian Smerenburgfjorden and Richarddalen Complexes constrain the tectonic evolution and origin of Svalbard's Northwestern Terrane. Field relationships combined with U–Pb age data indicate that a late Meso- to Neoproterozoic metapelitic protolith was intruded by Tonian (c. 960 Ma) granitoids and suggest that the entire Northwestern Terrane is underlain by early Neoproterozoic granitoids intruding older metasediments. Both rock types were later involved in Caledonian deformation, with subsequent migmatization and granite genesis at c. 435–420 Ma. Ages of inherited zircons in granites and migmatites reflect anatexis of this late Meso- to Neoproterozoic protolith, with zircon xenocrysts ranging in age from c. 1030 to 1820 Ma. Pronounced lithological, geochronological and tectonothermal similarities to NE Svalbard (Nordaustlandet) and the Krummedal supracrustal sequence of East Greenland suggest a strong correlation between Svalbard and East Greenland prior to Caledonian orogenesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geological Society of London, 2009
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-33811 (URN)10.1144/0016-76492008-023 (DOI)000262572600014 ()
Available from: 2009-12-29 Created: 2009-12-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. The Caledonian tectonothermal evolution of the Northwestern Terrane, Svalbard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Caledonian tectonothermal evolution of the Northwestern Terrane, Svalbard
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Mineral-chemical data of metapelites from the Proterozoic Krossfjorden Complex constrain the Late Caledonian tectonic evolution of Svalbard’s Northwestern Terrane and record a clockwise P-T path. The oldest deformation event (D2) related to orogenesis in the Northwestern Terrane records crustal thickening and incipient melting of the crust at c. 430 Ma. Continued heating during prograde metamorphism at c. 420 Ma resulted in the main migmatization event (D3) and related granitoid genesis at c. 850 °C and >6 kbars. Following the peak P-T conditions, the crust was uplifted and cooled to 645-683 °C and 3-5k bars. Unconformably above the Late Silurian aged high-T rocks and granitoid intrusives are Early Devonian (c. 416-411) cover sequences indicating rapid exhumation of the crystalline basement. This suggests that the peak metamorphic conditions were followed by near isothermal decompression. The clockwise P-T-t path of the Krossfjorden Complex of Svalbard’s Northwestern Terrane is remarkably similar to rocks from the Krummedal Sequence and Smallefjord Sequence of central East Greenland, confirming the close link between these areas prior to the Late Caledonian orogeny.

Keyword
Svalbard, East Greenland, Caledonides, migmatites, clockwise P-T
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-39363 (URN)
Available from: 2010-05-18 Created: 2010-05-18 Last updated: 2010-06-08Bibliographically approved
3. U-Pb zircon provenance of metasedimentary basement of the Northwestern Terrane, Svalbard: Implications for the Grenvillian–Sveconorwegian orogenyand development of Rodinia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>U-Pb zircon provenance of metasedimentary basement of the Northwestern Terrane, Svalbard: Implications for the Grenvillian–Sveconorwegian orogenyand development of Rodinia
2009 (English)In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 175, no 1-4, 206-220 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Svalbard is pivotal for defining the northern extent of the Grenville/Sveconorwegian orogenic belt. Consequently, to constrain the origin of Svalbard’s Northwestern Terrane (NWT), detrital zircon populations from samples of the Krossfjorden Group and Smerenburgfjorden complex, northwestern Svalbard, were analyzed by U-Pb Laser ablation ICP-MS. These data indicate that the NWT’s metasedimentary basement, the Krossfjorden Group, was deposited between c. 1020-995 Ma and indicates that the Smerenburgfjorden complex may represent a migmatized and deformed part of the Krossfjorden Group. Statistically, the source area of the Krossfjorden Group can not be distinguished from other late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic siliciclastic sequences exposed in the Caledonian orogenic belt and their detrital populations are compatible with derivation from the Eastern Grenville Province (EGP), dominated by ages coinciding with the Labradorian event (1710-1600 Ma). The diachronous tectonothermal evolution of these Meso-to Neoproterozoic metasedimentary sequences suggests deposition in a spatially linked peripheral foreland and remnant ocean basins located east of EGP, which migrated eastwards during the final suturing of Rodina. Thus, they do not represent a northern branch of the Grenvillian/Sveconorwegian Orogeny.

Keyword
Svalbard, Rodinia, Laurentia, Zircon, Provenance
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-32793 (URN)10.1016/j.precamres.2009.09.010 (DOI)000272427700013 ()
Available from: 2009-12-16 Created: 2009-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Silurian-Devonian sediments from NW Svalbard: A fragment of Avalonia and Laurentia?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detrital zircon U-Pb ages of Silurian-Devonian sediments from NW Svalbard: A fragment of Avalonia and Laurentia?
2010 (English)In: Journal of the Geological Society (London), Vol. 167, no 5, 1019-1032 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Detrital zircon populations from Silurian-Devonian clastic rocks of NW Svalbard were analysed by U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate the pre-Caledonian provenance of Svalbard's Northwestern Terrane. Changes in the resulting age spectra suggest a major shift in sources from the Laurentian-Avalonian suture in the latest Silurian to the local metasedimentary basement of the Northwestern Terrane in the Late Silurian-Early Devonian, and in the Lochkovian to Grenvillian-Sveconorwegian sources. These data, together with structural, additional geochronological and metamorphic data from Svalbard, East Greenland and Avalonia, support the amalgamation of Svalbard as the result of long-distance transport along sinistral strike-slip faults. A unifying model for the final amalgamation of Svalbard, consistent with the stratigraphical and tectonothermal history of Svalbard, involves fragments from the Grampian orogen and Avalonian crust originally accreted to the Laurentian margin being subsequently transported northward along sinistral strike-slip faults during Scandian deformation.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-33802 (URN)10.1144/0016-76492010-062 (DOI)000281190700015 ()
Available from: 2009-12-29 Created: 2009-12-29 Last updated: 2011-12-05Bibliographically approved

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