Processing of the APP family by the α-secretases ADAM10 and TACE
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by formation of amyloid plaques in the brain. The major constituent of these plaques is the hydrophobic peptide Aβ. Aβ accumulation is considered to be the main cause of the pathology seen in AD brains. Aβ is produced through sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP can be processed by two different enzymatic pathways. Formation of Aβ requires cleavage of APP by β- and γ-secretase. However, most proteolytic processing of APP does not result in Aβ formation. Instead, APP is mainly cleaved by α-secretase, which not only precludes formation of the toxic Aβ peptide but also generates the neuroprotective sAPPα fragment. Increasing the α-secretase processing of APP is thereby a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. APP is a member of a conserved gene family, also including the APP-like proteins-1 and -2 (APLP1 and APLP2). The APP family members have essential and overlapping functions and have been reported to be processed in a similar way by the same enzymes. The processing of all APP family members is increased in response to several stimuli, including retinoic acid (RA) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which also induce a shift towards α-secretase processing. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms and signaling involved in induced α-secretase processing of the APP family. The main α-secretase candidates are ADAM10 and TACE. In this thesis we wanted to study the effects on expression levels of ADAM10 and TACE during RA treatment. We also wanted to investigate the mechanism behind IGF-1-induced processing of APP and APLP2. We found that both ADAM10 and TACE are up-regulated in response to RA, but that the signaling pathways involved differed between the two enzymes. Similarly, we showed that IGF-1-induced processing of APLP2, but not of APP, is dependent on PKC. Furthermore, we showed that ADAM10 is the main α-secretase for APP, whereas TACE cleaves APLP2 in response to IGF-1. We conclude that although APP and APLP2 proteolytic processing are induced by the same stimuli, the processing is dependent on different signaling pathways and processing enzymes, which in turn are differentially regulated.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Universitetsservice US-AB , 2010. , 51 p.
Research subject Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-41996ISBN: 978-91-7447-000-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-41996DiVA: diva2:343433
2010-01-22, Heilbronnsalen, Svante Arrhenius väg 21A, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Nilsson, Lars, Docent
Iverfeldt, Kerstin, Professor
List of papers