Silicon Diode Dose Response Correction in Small Photon Fields
Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Silicon diodes compared to other types of dosimeters have several attractive properties, such as an excellent spatial resolution, a high sensitivity, and clinically practical to use. These properties make silicon diodes a preferred dosimeter for relative dosimetry for several types of measurements in small field dosimetry, e.g., stereotactic treatments and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Silicon diodes are, however, limited by an energy dependent response variation in photon beams, resulting in that the diode readout per dose to the phantom medium varies with photon spectral changes, thereby introducing a significant uncertainty in the measured data. The traditional solution for the energy dependent over-response caused by low-energy photons is to use diodes with a shielding filter of high atomic number. These shielded diodes, however, show an incorrect readout for small fields due to electrons scattered from the shielding (Griessbach et al. 2005). In regions with degraded lateral electron equilibrium (LEE) shielded diodes over-respond due to an increased degree of LEE, as a consequence of the high density shielding (Lee et al. 2002).
In this work a prototype software that corrects for the energy dependent response of a silicon diode is developed and validated for small field sizes. The developed software is based on the novel concept of Monte Carlo (MC) simulated fluence pencil beam kernels to calculate spectra (Eklund and Ahnesjö 2008), and the spectra based silicon diode response model proposed by Eklund and Ahnesjö (2009). The software was also extended to include correction of ionization chambers, for the energy dependent Spencer-Attix water/air stopping power ratio (sw,air). The calculated sw,air are shown to be in excellent agreement with published values to better than 0.1% for most values, the maximum deviation being 0.3%.
Measured relative depth doses, relative profiles, and output factors in water, for small square field sizes, for 6 MV and 15 MV clinical photon beams are presented in this work. The results show that the unshielded Scanditronix-Wellhöfer EFD3G silicon diode response, corrected by the developed software, is in excellent agreement with reference ionization chamber measurements (corrected for change in sw,air), the maximum deviation being 0.4%.
Measurements with two types of shielded diodes, namely Scanditronix-Wellhöfer PFD silicon diodes (FP1990 and FP2730), are also included in this work. The shielded diodes are shown to have an over-response as large as 2-3.5% for field sizes smaller than 5 cm x 5 cm. The presented results also suggest a difference in accuracy as large as 0.5-1% between the two types of shielded diodes, where the spectral composition at the measurement position dictates which type of diode is more accurate.
The fast correction of silicon diodes provided by the developed software is more accurate than shielded diodes for small field sizes, and can in radiotherapeutic clinical practice increase the dosimetric accuracy of silicon diodes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. , 69 p.
Radiotherapy, Silicon diode, Dosimetry, Dose response correction, Small field
Strålterapi, Kiseldiod, Dosimetri, Dos-respons korrektion, Små fält
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-42649OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-42649DiVA: diva2:350439
2010-09-08, 15:00 (English)
UppsokPhysics, Chemistry, Mathematics
Ahnesjö, Anders, Adj. ProfEklund, KarinGrusell, Erik, Docent
Nilsson, Bo, DocentSiegbahn, Albert, Fil. DrGudowska, Irena, Docent