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Calculating terrain indices along streams - a new method for separating stream sides
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA.
Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
2010 (English)In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is increasing interest in assessing riparian zones and their hydrological and biogeochemical buffering capacity with indices derived from hydrologic landscape analysis of digital elevation data. Upslope contributing area is a common surrogate for lateral water flows and can be used to assess the variability of local water inflows to riparian zones and streams. However, current GIS algorithms do not provide a method for easily separating riparian zone and adjacent upland lateral contributions on each side of the stream. Here we propose a new algorithm to compute side-separated contributions along stream networks. We describe the new algorithm and illustrate the importance of distinguishing between lateral inflows on each side of streams with hillslope – riparian zone – stream hydrologic connectivity results from high frequency water table data collected in the 22km 2  Tenderfoot Creek catchment, Montana.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union , 2010. Vol. 46
Keyword [en]
riparian, hillslope, topography, stream network, terrain analysis, GIS
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-42727DOI: 10.1029/2010WR009296OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-42727DiVA: diva2:351177
Projects
Swedish Research Council (VR, grant no. 2005-4289)
Available from: 2010-09-13 Created: 2010-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Water quality modeling based on landscape analysis: importance of riparian hydrology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water quality modeling based on landscape analysis: importance of riparian hydrology
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several studies in high-latitude catchments have demonstrated the importance of near-stream riparian zones as hydrogeochemical hotspots with a substantial influence on stream chemistry. An adequate representation of the spatial variability of riparian-zone processes and characteristics is the key for modeling spatio-temporal variations of stream-water quality. This thesis contributes to current knowledge by refining landscape-analysis techniques to describe riparian zones and by introducing a conceptual framework to quantify solute exports from riparian zones. The utility of the suggested concepts is evaluated based on an extensive set of hydrometric and chemical data comprising measurements of streamflow, groundwater levels, soil-water chemistry and stream chemistry.

Standard routines to analyze digital elevation models that are offered by current geographical information systems have been of very limited use for deriving hydrologically meaningful terrain indices for riparian zones. A model-based approach for hydrological landscape analysis is outlined, which, by explicitly simulating groundwater levels, allows better predictions of saturated areas compared to standard routines. Moreover, a novel algorithm is presented for distinguishing between left and right stream sides, which is a fundamental prerequisite for characterizing riparian zones through landscape analysis. The new algorithm was used to derive terrain indices from a high-resolution LiDAR digital elevation model. By combining these terrain indices with detailed hydrogeochemical measurements from a riparian observatory, it was possible to upscale the measured attributes and to subsequently characterize the variation of total organic-carbon exports from riparian zones in a boreal catchment in Northern Sweden. Riparian zones were recognized as highly heterogeneous landscape elements. Organic-rich riparian zones were found to be hotspots influencing temporal trends in stream-water organic carbon while spatial variations of organic carbon in streams were attributed to the arrangement of organic-poor and organic-rich riparian zones along the streams. These insights were integrated into a parsimonious modeling approach. An analytical solution of the model equations is presented, which provides a physical basis for commonly used power-law streamflow-load relations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, 2010. 39 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 24
Keyword
Water quality model, terrain analysis, geographical information system GIS, riparian zone, total organic carbon TOC, boreal catchments
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-42729 (URN)978-91-7447-135-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-10-18, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Swedish Research Council (VR, grant no. 2005-4289)
Note
At the time of doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: In press; Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-09-24 Created: 2010-09-13 Last updated: 2010-09-27Bibliographically approved

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