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Release of alien populations in Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9286-3361
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
Department of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
School of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences, University of Washington .
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2006 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 5, 255-261 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction of alien species is a major threat to biological diversity. Although public attention typically focuses on the species level, guidelines from the Convention of Biological Diversity define alien species to include entities below species level. This inclusion recognizes that release of nonlocal populations of native species may also result in negative effects on biodiversity. In practice, little is known about the extent, degree of establishment, or the effects on natural gene pools of such releases. Existing information on the releases in Sweden shows that alien populations are spread to a great extent. The most commonly released species include brown trout, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, common whitefish, Scots pine, Norway spruce, mallard duck, gray partridge, and pheasant. Although millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually, poor documentation makes the geographic and genetic origin of these populations, as well as the sites where they have been released, largely unclear. We provide recommendations for urgently needed first steps relating to the risks and problems associated with release of alien populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 35, no 5, 255-261 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Population Genetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-42939OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-42939DiVA: diva2:352315
Available from: 2010-09-20 Created: 2010-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Assessing and monitoring genetic patterns for conservation purposes with special emphasis on Scandinavia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing and monitoring genetic patterns for conservation purposes with special emphasis on Scandinavia
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Genetic variation is essential for biological evolution, for maintaining viability of populations, and to ensure ecosystem resilience. Increased human exploitation and environmental change result in rapid loss of biological variation, including genetic diversity. Measures to halt this trend require that biological diversity is assessed and monitored. Assessment of biodiversity includes identifying patterns of distribution of genetic variation within individual species.

This thesis focuses on spatial genetic structure and assessment of units for conservation in continuous environments without apparent migration barriers. Empirical data refer to Scandinavia and the model species are northern pike (Esox lucius), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Questions regarding monitoring genetic diversity and releases of alien populations are also addressed.

 The spatial genetic structure of the northern pike in the Baltic Sea is characterized by isolation by distance and continuous genetic change. Positive genetic correlation was found among pike within geographical distances of less than 150 km. This distance may be used to suggest management units in this area. For the brown trout, genetic monitoring identified two sympatric populations within a small mountain lake system. The situation is characterized by a clear genetic but no apparent phenotypic dichotomy. Scientific support for a genetically distinct Baltic harbour porpoise population is limited, and the spatial genetic structure of the harbour porpoise in Swedish waters needs to be clarified.

Data for launching conservation genetic monitoring programs is available for only a few Swedish species. Millions of forest trees, fish, and birds are released annually in Sweden and the documentation on these releases is poor. To meet responsibilities of safeguarding biodiversity and surveying biological effects of releases, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at evaluating genetic diversity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2010. 61 p.
Keyword
biological diversity, conservation genetics, management unit, spatial genetic structure, sympatric populations, genetic monitoring, release of alien populations, northern pike, brown trout, harbour porpoise
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Population Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-42942 (URN)978-91-7447-130-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-12, De Geer-salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-10-21 Created: 2010-09-20 Last updated: 2010-10-15Bibliographically approved

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