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Designing Affective Loop Experiences
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a lack of attention to the emotional and the physical aspects of communication in how we up to now have been approaching communication between people in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). As designers of digital communication tools we need to consider altering the underlying model for communication that has been prevailing in HCI: the information transfer model. Communication is about so much more than transferring information. It is about getting to know yourself, who you are and what part you play in the communication as it unfolds. It is also about the experience of a communication process, what it feels like, how that feeling changes, when it changes, why and perhaps by whom the process is initiated, altered, or disrupted. The idea of Affective Loop experiences in design aims to create new expressive and experiential media for whole users, embodied with the social and physical world they live in, and where communication not only is about getting the message across but also about living the experience of communication - feeling it.

An Affective Loop experience is an emerging, in the moment, emotional experience where the inner emotional experience, the situation at hand and the social and physical context act together, to create for one complete embodied experience. The loop perspective comes from how this experience takes place in communication and how there is a rhythmic pattern in communication where those involved take turns in both expressing themselves and standing back interpreting the moment.

To allow for Affective Loop experiences with or through a computer system, the user needs to be allowed to express herself in rich personal ways involving our many ways of expressing and sensing emotions – muscles tensions, facial expressions and more. For the user to become further engaged in interaction, the computer system needs the capability to return relevant, either diminishing, enforcing or disruptive feedback to those emotions expressed by the user so that the she wants to continue express herself by either strengthening, changing or keeping her expression.

We describe how we used the idea of Affective Loop experiences as a conceptual tool to navigate a design space of gestural input combined with rich instant feedback. In our design journey, we created two systems, eMoto and FriendSense.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Departmen of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2010. , 117 p.
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 10-008
Series
SICS Dissertation Series, ISSN 1101-1335 ; 53
Keyword [en]
Design, Interaction, Communication, Mobile, Emotion, Body, Digital material
National Category
Information Science
Research subject
Man-Machine-Interaction (MMI)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43376ISBN: 978-91-7447-142-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-43376DiVA: diva2:356101
Public defence
2010-11-12, sal C, Forum 100, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-10-21 Created: 2010-10-11 Last updated: 2010-10-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. In Situ Informants Exploring an emotional Mobile Meassaging System in Their Everyday Practice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Situ Informants Exploring an emotional Mobile Meassaging System in Their Everyday Practice
2007 (English)In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 65, no 4, 388-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have designed and built a mobile emotional messaging system named eMoto. With it, users can compose messages through using emotion-signalling gestures as input, rendering a message background of colours, shapes and animations expressing the emotional content. The design intent behind eMoto was that it should be engaging physically, intellectually and socially, and allow users to express themselves emotionally in all those dimensions, involving them in an affective loop experience. In here, we describe the user-centred design process that lead to the eMoto system, but focus mainly on the final study where we let five friends use eMoto for two weeks. The study method, which we name in situ informants, helped us enter and explore the subjective and distributed experiences of use, as well as how emotional communication unfolds in everyday practice when channelled through a system like eMoto. The in situ informants are on the one hand users of eMoto, but also spectators, that are close friends who observe and document user behaviour. Design conclusions include the need to support the sometimes fragile communication rhythm that friendships require—expressing memories of the past, sharing the present and planning for the future. We saw that emotions are not singular state that exist within one person alone, but permeates the total situation, changing and drifting as a process between the two friends communicating. We also gained insights into the under-estimated but still important physical, sensual aspects of emotional communication. Experiences of the in situ informants method pointed to the need to involve participants in the interpretation of the data obtained, as well as establishing a closer connection with the spectators

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
Affective interaction; Evaluation method; User study; Mobile application
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-12115 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.11.013 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. eMoto: Affectively Involving both Body and Mind
Open this publication in new window or tab >>eMoto: Affectively Involving both Body and Mind
2005 (English)In: CHI '05 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, Portland, OR, USA: ACM , 2005, 2005-2008 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is known that emotions are experienced by both body and mind. Oftentimes, emotions are evoked by sub-symbolic stimuli, such as colors, shapes, gestures, or music. We have built eMoto, a mobile service for sending affective messages to others, with the explicit aim of addressing such sensing. Through combining affective gestures for input with affective expressions that make use of colors, shapes and animations for the background of messages, the interaction pulls the user into an embodied 'affective loop'. We present a user study of eMoto where 12 out of 18 subjects got both physically and emotionally involved in the interaction. The study also shows that the designed 'openness' and ambiguity of the expressions, was appreciated and understood by our subjects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Portland, OR, USA: ACM, 2005
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43335 (URN)1-59593-002-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Available from: 2010-10-08 Created: 2010-10-08 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved
3. Probing the Potential of Non-verbal Group Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing the Potential of Non-verbal Group Communication
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACM 2009 international conference on Supporting group work, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA: ACM , 2009, 351-360 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Designing for non-verbal communication using e.g. gestures and other bodily expressions is difficult. Hardware and software need to be co-designed and harmonize in order to not throw users out of their embodied experience. We aim to design for kinaesthetic expressions of emotion in communication between friends - in this case, colleagues at work. A probe was built using sensor node technology designed to let users express themselves and their emotional state to a public and shared display where the expressions together formed a collective art piece expressing the individuals but also the group as a whole. Two groups of colleagues used the probe during two weeks. It came to serve as a channel in which some conflicts and expressions of social relations were acted out which were not openly discussed in the office. It exposed different roles and balances in relationships in the group. Finally, the probe taught us the importance of balancing the design for joint group expression and individual, personal expressions. The study also allowed the participants to experience the sensor node-'material' - enabling a participatory design process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sanibel Island, Florida, USA: ACM, 2009
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-33539 (URN)978-1-60558-500-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Supporting Group Work
Available from: 2009-12-23 Created: 2009-12-23 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved
4. Hand in Hand with the Material: Designing for Suppleness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hand in Hand with the Material: Designing for Suppleness
2010 (English)In: CHI 2010: 28th ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, Georgia: ACM press , 2010, 463-472 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Designing for a supple interaction, involving users bodily and emotionally into a 'dance' with a system is a challenging task. Any break-ups in interaction become fatal to the sensual, fluent, bodily and social experience sought. A user-centered, iterative design cycle is therefore required.

But getting to know the affordances of the digital material used to build the application plays an equally important role in the design process. The 'feel' of the digital material properties sometimes even determines what the design should be. We describe three situations in which the properties and affordances of sensor network technologies guided our design process of FriendSense -- a system for expressing friendship and emotional closeness through movement. We show how the sensor node look and feel, choice of sensors, limitations of the radio signal strength and coverage, as well as iterative prototyping to properly exploit the software/algorithmic possibilities guided our design process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlanta, Georgia: ACM press, 2010
Keyword
Emotion and Affective User Interface, Handheld Devices
National Category
Information Science
Research subject
Man-Machine-Interaction (MMI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-36294 (URN)978-1-60558-929-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Available from: 2010-01-22 Created: 2010-01-22 Last updated: 2010-11-24Bibliographically approved
5. eMoto: Emotionally Engaging Interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>eMoto: Emotionally Engaging Interaction
2004 (English)In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, ISSN 1617-4909, Vol. 8, no 5, 377-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: Springer-Verlag, 2004
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43336 (URN)10.1007/s00779-004-0301-z (DOI)
Available from: 2010-10-08 Created: 2010-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
6. Designing gestures for affective input: an analysis of shape, effort and valence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing gestures for affective input: an analysis of shape, effort and valence
2003 (English)In: MUM 2003: proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, 10-12 December, 2003, Norrköping, Sweden / [ed] Mark Ollila and Martin Rantzer, Norrköping, Sweden: ACM , 2003, 57-65 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We discuss a user-centered approach to incorporating affective expressions in interactive applications, and argue for a design that addresses both body and mind. In particular, we have studied the problem of finding a set of affective gestures. Based on previous work in movement analysis and emotion theory [Davies, Laban and Lawrence, Russell], and a study of an actor expressing emotional states in body movements, we have identified three underlying dimensions of movements and emotions: shape, effort and valence. From these dimensions we have created a new affective interaction model, which we name the affective gestural plane model. We applied this model to the design of gestural affective input to a mobile service for affective messages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping, Sweden: ACM, 2003
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43337 (URN)1-58113-826-1 (ISBN)
Conference
MUM 2003 Norrköping
Available from: 2010-10-08 Created: 2010-10-08 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved

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