Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Primary Marine Aerosol Production: Studies using bubble-bursting experiments
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aerosol particles affect the Earth’s climate, although their impact is associated with large uncertainties. Primary marine aerosol represents a significant fraction of the global aerosol budget considering the Earth’s 70-percentage coverage by oceans. They are produced when bubbles burst at the ocean surface and can consist of sea salt, organic matter and bacteria. An experimental approach was here used to investigate the primary marine aerosol production from the bubble-bursting mechanism using water from four different geographical locations. The main findings include:

  • Similar and stable aerosol number size distributions at all locations, centered close to 0.2 μm.
  • Largely varying aerosol organic fractions, both with size and location.
  • Clear tendency for increased water temperature to negatively influence the aerosol production.
  • No covariance between surface water chlorophyll α and aerosol production on a 10-minute time scale, although decreased aerosol production was observed at times of elevated phytoplankton activity on longer time scales.
  • Mainly external mixtures of sea salt and organics was observed.
  • A high tendency for colony-forming marine bacteria to use bubble-bursting to reach the atmosphere.
  • A clear diurnal cycle in aerosol production was found for both laboratory produced aerosol and in-situ aerosol fluxes, probably biologically driven.
  • The first near coastal sea spray fluxes with limited fetch and low salinity.

While the primary marine aerosol spectral shape is stable, emission concentration varies with environmental parameters. Above that, the organic fraction of the aerosol varies largely between locations. This shows that observations of primary marine aerosol emissions not necessarily can be applied to large time- or spatial scales.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2010. , 44 p.
Keyword [en]
sea spray, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, photosynthesis, bacterial emissions, V-TDMA, mixing state, eddy covariance
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43544ISBN: 978-91-7447-159-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-43544DiVA: diva2:357716
Public defence
2010-12-01, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: In press. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2011-03-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. In situ laboratory sea spray production during the Marine Aerosol Production 2006 cruise on the northeastern Atlantic Ocean
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ laboratory sea spray production during the Marine Aerosol Production 2006 cruise on the northeastern Atlantic Ocean
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 115, D06201- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bubbles bursting from whitecaps are considered to be the most effective mechanism for particulate matter to be ejected into the atmosphere from the Earth's oceans. To realistically predict the climate effect of marine aerosols, global climate models require process-based understanding of particle formation from bubble bursting. During a cruise on the highly biologically active waters of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean in the summer of 2006, the submicrometer primary marine aerosol produced by a jet of seawater impinging on a seawater surface was investigated. The produced aerosol size spectra were centered on 200 nm in dry diameter and were conservative in shape throughout the cruise. The aerosol number production was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water (r < −0.6 for particles of dry diameter Dp > 200 nm). An increased surfactant concentration as a result of biological activity affecting the oxygen saturation is thought to diminish the particle production. The lack of influence of chlorophyll on aerosol production indicates that hydrocarbons produced directly by the photosynthesis are not essential for sea spray production. The upward mixing of deeper ocean water as a result of higher wind speed appears to affect the aerosol particle production, making wind speed influence aerosol production in more ways than by increasing the amount of whitecaps. The bubble spectra produced by the jet of seawater was representative of breaking waves at open sea, and the particle number production was positively correlated with increasing bubble number concentration with a peak production of 40–50 particles per bubble.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43537 (URN)10.1029/2009JD012522 (DOI)000275857400001 ()
Available from: 2010-10-19 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Aerosol and bacterial emissions from Baltic Seawater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerosol and bacterial emissions from Baltic Seawater
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 99, no 1, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Factors influencing the production of primary marine aerosol are of great importance to better understand the marine aerosols' impact on our climate. Bubble-bursting from whitecaps is considered the most effective mechanism for sea spray production, and a way of sea–air transfer for some bacterial species.

Two coastal sites in the Baltic Sea were used to investigate aerosol and bacterial emissions from the bubble-bursting process by letting a jet of water hit a water surface within an experimental tank, mimicking the actions of breaking waves.

The aerosol size distribution spectra from the two sites were similar and conservative in shape where the modes were centered at about 200 nm dry diameter. We found a distinct decrease in bubbled aerosol production with increasing water temperature. A clear diurnal cycle in bubbled aerosol production was observed, anticorrelated with both water temperature and dissolved oxygen, which to our knowledge has never been shown before. A link between decreasing aerosol production in daytime and phytoplankton activity is likely to be an important factor. Colony-forming bacteria were transferred to the atmosphere via the bubble-bursting process, with a linear relationship to their seawater concentration.

Keyword
Marine aerosol, Surface water temperature, Marine bacteria, Diurnal cycles, Photosynthesis
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43538 (URN)10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.08.018 (DOI)000285988300001 ()
Available from: 2010-10-19 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Volatility properties and mixing state of submicron primary marine aerosol from Arctic seawater near Svalbard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volatility properties and mixing state of submicron primary marine aerosol from Arctic seawater near Svalbard
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43541 (URN)
Available from: 2010-10-19 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2010-10-20Bibliographically approved
4. Baltic Sea Spray Emissions: in situ Eddy Covariance Fluxes v.s. Simulated Tank Sea Spray
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baltic Sea Spray Emissions: in situ Eddy Covariance Fluxes v.s. Simulated Tank Sea Spray
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43542 (URN)
Available from: 2010-10-19 Created: 2010-10-19 Last updated: 2010-10-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(752 kB)232 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 752 kBChecksum SHA-512
0fdfe6da2825f59f9c8c5b93589e46a4d1b2ae6073ce4af5ffae6b98cb5ea9b0ca6c008fcbe05bdde05bf4f204a5c6b91f344e345e506da50bb150d51b033982
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hultin, Kim
By organisation
Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM)
Natural Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 232 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 292 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf