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Chlorinated paraffins in the Swedish atmosphere: spatial and seasonal variability
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants of concern, as indicated by the recent addition of the short-chained CPs as a new Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) in the United Nations Eco-nomic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) (United Nations, 2010). Howev-er, knowledge about the occurrence of CPs in the environment, and in the atmosphere in particular, is limited. To address this, ambient air samples were collected over a 10 month period at an urban site and a rural site in Sweden, and analyzed for the sum of the short-chained, me-dium-chained and long-chained CPs. The CP concentrations ranged from 0.7-33 ng/m3, and they were significantly higher at the urban site. The low volatile CP congeners dominated in the samples, and this domin-ance was more pronounced at the urban site. Particle-bound and ga-seous CPs were determined separately in several samples, and between 50 and 90 % of the CPs were estimated to be in the gas phase. A clear seasonality in the concentrations was observed, with levels in summer that were about 5 times higher than in winter. This indicates that tem-perature dependent emission from urban sources is a major source of the CPs in air. Diffusive emissions from building materials are likely to make a major contribution.

Keyword [en]
Chlorinated paraffins, CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes, PCAs, air
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43556OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-43556DiVA: diva2:357895
Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2010-10-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sources, emissions, and occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources, emissions, and occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in Stockholm, Sweden
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They fulfill all of the criteria (persistent, toxic, and subject to long-range transport) for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). CPs are also under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on POPs. Their presence has been shown in various environmental matrices in the industrialized parts of the world, as well as in remote regions such as the Arctic.

The aim of this thesis was to increase the limited knowledge of the presence of CPs in the environment, their sources to the environment, and the resulting human exposure. An analytical procedure for the determination of CPs in environmental samples based on gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection (GC-ECD) has been developed. GC-ECD is a relatively inexpensive instrument that is fast and easy to operate. These advantages open up the possibility for a comprehensive screening of the occurrence of CPs in the environment, including developing countries.

Furthermore, the occurrence of CPs in ambient air and in indoor air and dust was studied. Elevated CP concentrations in indoor air (<5-210 ng/m3) were observed compared to ambient air (0.7-33 ng/m3), which is indicative of the presence of indoor emission sources. Indoor air and dust concentrations were used to estimate the human exposure to CPs via the indoor environment. Comparison of the estimates to available dietary intake estimates indicated that the indoor exposure pathways are not negligible.

CP concentrations in ambient air from urban Stockholm were higher than in rural Aspvreten, Sweden. This indicates the presence of additional (emission) sources in urban areas compared to rural sites. Additionally, a seasonal variation of air concentrations was observed at both locations, suggesting temperature dependent emission sources for CPs. These observations were supported by a substance flow analysis of CPs performed for Stockholm. This study estimated the major emission sources of CPs to the Stockholm environment to be emissions from painted surfaces and in-place sealants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 2010. 53 p.
Keyword
Chlorinated paraffins, CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes, PCAs, Air, Dust, Analysis, Exposure, Emissions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43559 (URN)978-91-7447-162-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-26, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2011-12-27Bibliographically approved

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