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Emissions of chlorinated paraffins in Stockholm: A substance flow analysis study
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Regions and Environment Department, Statistics Sweden.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are currently under consideration for classi-fication as persistent organic pollutants. They have been extensively used for many decades in a wide range of applications, particularly in industrial lubricants and building materials. However, very little is known about their levels in the technosphere or about the origins and quantities of their emission into the environment. In this study, sub-stance flow analysis was used to estimate CP emissions from the city of Stockholm, Sweden to different environmental media. The results indi-cate that 16 tonnes of CPs are added to the technosphere in Stockholm annually, and that approximately 0.5 tonnes are emitted to air and wa-ter annually. The estimated emissions to air and water were in reasona-ble agreement with independent emission estimates derived from envi-ronmental monitoring data. The emissions are not directly linked to the annual inflow; instead, they largely originate from the large quantity of CPs that have accumulated in the technosphere over many years. The main sources of the emissions are in-place paints and sealants. The vast majority of the CPs are expected to leave the technosphere as solid waste, but there are uncertainties regarding subsequent CP emissions from solid waste into the environment.

Keyword [en]
Chlorinated paraffins, CPs, substance flow analysis, emissions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43557OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-43557DiVA: diva2:357899
Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2010-10-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sources, emissions, and occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources, emissions, and occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in Stockholm, Sweden
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They fulfill all of the criteria (persistent, toxic, and subject to long-range transport) for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). CPs are also under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on POPs. Their presence has been shown in various environmental matrices in the industrialized parts of the world, as well as in remote regions such as the Arctic.

The aim of this thesis was to increase the limited knowledge of the presence of CPs in the environment, their sources to the environment, and the resulting human exposure. An analytical procedure for the determination of CPs in environmental samples based on gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection (GC-ECD) has been developed. GC-ECD is a relatively inexpensive instrument that is fast and easy to operate. These advantages open up the possibility for a comprehensive screening of the occurrence of CPs in the environment, including developing countries.

Furthermore, the occurrence of CPs in ambient air and in indoor air and dust was studied. Elevated CP concentrations in indoor air (<5-210 ng/m3) were observed compared to ambient air (0.7-33 ng/m3), which is indicative of the presence of indoor emission sources. Indoor air and dust concentrations were used to estimate the human exposure to CPs via the indoor environment. Comparison of the estimates to available dietary intake estimates indicated that the indoor exposure pathways are not negligible.

CP concentrations in ambient air from urban Stockholm were higher than in rural Aspvreten, Sweden. This indicates the presence of additional (emission) sources in urban areas compared to rural sites. Additionally, a seasonal variation of air concentrations was observed at both locations, suggesting temperature dependent emission sources for CPs. These observations were supported by a substance flow analysis of CPs performed for Stockholm. This study estimated the major emission sources of CPs to the Stockholm environment to be emissions from painted surfaces and in-place sealants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 2010. 53 p.
Keyword
Chlorinated paraffins, CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes, PCAs, Air, Dust, Analysis, Exposure, Emissions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43559 (URN)978-91-7447-162-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-26, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2011-12-27Bibliographically approved

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