Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS)--statistical properties and model fit of an instrument to assess change processes in pain related disability.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
2010 (English)In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 14, no 7, 771.e1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent developments within CBT have emphasized acceptance rather than control of pain and distress in treatments aimed at improving functioning and life quality, but there is still a lack of reliable and valid instruments to assess relevant processes in such interventions. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) was developed to assess target variables in exposure and acceptance oriented treatments. A preliminary validation study resulted in a two-factor solution with subscales for avoidance and cognitive fusion related to pain, showing satisfactory psychometric properties. This study sought to evaluate the instrument with 611 participants with whiplash associated disorders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor solution with 12 items which showed an acceptable model fit, adequate internal consistencies, and strong relations with criteria variables (e.g. disability and life satisfaction). The construct validity of the instrument was supported by high correlations with subscales from the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK). Notably, hierarchical regression analyses illustrated that PIPS explained more variance than TSK in pain, disability, life satisfaction and depression. Furthermore, PIPS was found to mediate the relationship between e.g. pain and disability, suggesting the usefulness of PIPS as a process measure in treatments of people with chronic pain. Thus, it is argued that this 12-item version of PIPS may be used to explore the importance of psychological in/flexibility in chronic pain and to analyse processes of change in exposure based interventions, as well as for clinicians in tailoring interventions for patients with chronic debilitating pain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 14, no 7, 771.e1-14 p.
Keyword [en]
Chronic pain, Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), Avoidance Cognitive fusion, Acceptance, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Psychological flexibility Assessment, Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS), Mediation analysis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43602DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.11.015PubMedID: 20106685Local ID: P2825OAI: diva2:358561
Available from: 2010-10-22 Created: 2010-10-22 Last updated: 2010-10-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed
By organisation
Stress Research Institute
In the same journal
European Journal of Pain
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 45 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link