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Neutral and phenolic brominated organic compounds of natural and anthropogenic origin in Northeast Atlantic Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
University of Iceland, Institute of Biology.
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2010 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 12, 2653-2659 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, muscle and liver tissue from 10 female Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) collected in Icelandic waters were analyzed for neutral and phenolic brominated organic compounds, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally related methoxylated (MeO) and hydroxylated (OH) PBDEs. Hydroxylated PBDEs exist both as natural products and as metabolites of the anthropogenic PBDEs, whereas MeO-PBDEs appear to exclusively be of natural origin. Other compounds examined were 2′,6-dimethoxy-2,3′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′,6-diMeO-BDE68), 2,2′-dimethoxy-3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2′-diMeO-BB80), 2,4,6-tribromoanisol (2,4,6-TBA) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, all of natural origin, although 2,4,6-TBA and its phenolic counterpart may also be of anthropogenic origin. The major brominated organic compound was 6-MeO-BDE47, and ΣMeO-PBDE ranged from 49 to 210 ng/g fat in muscle and from 55 to 200 ng/g fat in liver tissue. Total concentrations of PBDEs were lower than ΣMeO-PBDE, in all but one sample, ranging between 7.3 to 190 and 9.9 to 200 ng/g fat in muscle and liver, respectively, and major congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed using both high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as a quality assurance, and the results from this comparison were acceptable. In accordance with previous work on Greenland sharks, no size/age-related accumulation was observed. Differences seen in concentrations were instead assumed to be a reflection of different feeding habits among the individuals. Phenolic compounds were only formed/retained in trace amounts in the Greenland shark. Among the phenolic compounds studied were 6-OH-BDE47, 2′-OH-BDE68, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, all detected in liver and the latter two in muscle

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 29, no 12, 2653-2659 p.
Keyword [en]
Iceland, Arctic, Shark, Size-related accumulation, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-45823DOI: 10.1002/etc.330ISI: 000284683200003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-45823DiVA: diva2:369852
Funder
Formas
Available from: 2010-11-12 Created: 2010-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Organohalogen contaminants in Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organohalogen contaminants in Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The remote sub-Arctic/Arctic environment has due to human activities become a sink for organohalogen contaminants (OHCs). These OHC include traditional contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs and technical mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), all included in the Stockholm Convention list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Other OHCs, currently under evaluation to be included among the POPs i.e. short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) are also found in these environments as well as a whole range of other OHCs.

The main objective of this thesis is to increase the knowledge about the presence of OHCs in a high trophic Arctic shark species, the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus). The Greenland shark is an opportunistic feeder, occasionally feeding at the top of the Arctic marine food chain. Furthermore may this species have a life span in excess of 100 years and is probably among the oldest of any fish species. These traits make the shark prone to accumulate elevated concentrations of OHCs.

This has shown to be true for the Greenland sharks studied and most of the targeted OHCs were determined in the species. The highest concentrations were observed for the DDTs, ranging up to 26 μg/g fat. Other OHCs reported that are of special interest are SCCPs and brominated flame retardants used as replacement products to PBDEs; pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Also a range of OHCs whose origin is assumed to be natural, were shown to be present in Greenland sharks.

This thesis is stressing the fact that even though the use of certain OHCs has been banned for decades they are still present at high concentrations in the deep waters of the Arctic. Therefore it is of major importance to continue to monitor the fate of traditional and emerging OHCs in the environment, and for this purpose the Greenland shark is an excellent species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stokcholm University, 2010. 69 p.
Keyword
persistent organic pollutants, sub-Arctic, Iceland, shark
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-45828 (URN)978-91-7447-139-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-17, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Formas, Dnr 2004-347
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-11-25 Created: 2010-11-12 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved

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