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An Arctic Ocean ice shelf during MIS 6 constrained by new geophysical and geological data
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. (Marin geologi)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. (Marin geologi)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. (Marin geologi)
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2010 (English)In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 29, no 25-26, 3505-3517 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The hypothesis of floating ice shelves covering the Arctic Ocean during glacial periods was developed in the 1970s. In its most extreme form, this theory involved a 1000 m thick continuous ice shelf covering the Arctic Ocean during Quaternary glacial maxima including the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). While recent observations clearly demonstrate deep ice grounding events in the central Arctic Ocean, the ice shelf hypothesis has been difficult to evaluate due to a lack of information from key areas with severe sea ice conditions. Here we present new data from previously inaccessible, unmapped areas that constrain the spatial extent and timing of marine ice sheets during past glacials. These data include multibeam swath bathymetry and subbottom profiles portraying glaciogenic features on the Chukchi Borderland, southern Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland, Morris Jesup Rise, and Yermak Plateau. Sediment cores from the mapped areas provide age constraints on the glaciogenic features. Combining these new geophysical and geological data with earlier results suggests that an especially extensive marine ice sheet complex, including an ice shelf, existed in the Amerasian Arctic Ocean during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. From a conceptual oceanographic model we speculate that the cold halocline of the Polar Surface Water may have extended to deeper water depths during MIS 6 inhibiting the warm Atlantic water from reaching the Amerasian Arctic Ocean and, thus, creating favorable conditions for ice shelf development. The hypothesis of a continuous 1000 m thick ice shelf is rejected because our mapping results show that several areas in the central Arctic Ocean substantially shallower than 1000 m water depth are free from glacial influence on the seafloor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 29, no 25-26, 3505-3517 p.
Keyword [en]
Arctic Ocean, Ice Shelves, Paleoceanography, Climate
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Marine Geoscience
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-47302DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.03.015ISI: 000284724400012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-47302DiVA: diva2:373555
Available from: 2010-12-07 Created: 2010-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mapping bathymetry: From measurement to applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping bathymetry: From measurement to applications
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Surface elevation is likely the most fundamental property of our planet. In contrast to land topography, bathymetry, its underwater equivalent, remains uncertain in many parts of the World ocean. Bathymetry is relevant for a wide range of research topics and for a variety of societal needs. Examples, where knowing the exact water depth or the morphology of the seafloor is vital include marine geology, physical oceanography, the propagation of tsunamis and documenting marine habitats. Decisions made at administrative level based on bathymetric data include safety of maritime navigation, spatial planning along the coast, environmental protection and the exploration of the marine resources.

This thesis covers different aspects of ocean mapping from the collection of echo sounding data to the application of Digital Bathymetric Models (DBMs) in Quaternary marine geology and physical oceanography. Methods related to DBM compilation are developed, namely a flexible handling and storage solution for heterogeneous sounding data and a method for the interpolation of such data onto a regular lattice. The use of bathymetric data is analyzed in detail for the Baltic Sea. With the wide range of applications found, the needs of the users are varying. However, most applications would benefit from better depth data than what is presently available. Based on glaciogenic landforms found in the Arctic Ocean seafloor morphology, a possible scenario for Quaternary Arctic Ocean glaciation is developed. Our findings suggest large ice shelves around parts of the Arctic Ocean during Marine Isotope Stage 6, 130–200 ka. Steered by bathymetry, deep water from the Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean flows over the central Lomonosov Ridge into the Eurasian Basin. This water mass is traced on its continuing way towards Greenland and the Fram Strait. At the Morris Jesup Rise, bathymetry plays an important role in the partial re-circulation of the water into the Amerasian Basin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 2011. 41 p.
Series
Meddelanden från Stockholms universitets institution för geologiska vetenskaper, 344
Keyword
Ocean and coastal mapping, Digital Bathymetric Model, Geographical Information System, Applications of bathymetric data, Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean, Seafloor morphology, Ocean circulation
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Marine Geoscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-57291 (URN)978-91-7447-309-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-06-08, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Submitted.

Available from: 2011-05-12 Created: 2011-05-05 Last updated: 2013-11-06Bibliographically approved

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Jakobsson, MartinNilsson, JohanO'Regan, MattBackman, JanLöwemark, LudvigColleoni, FlorenceEriksson, BjörnHanslik, DanielaHell, Benjamin
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