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High-resolution geophysical observations of the Yermak Plateau and northern Svalbard margin: Implications for ice-sheet grounding and deep-keeled icebergs
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. (Marin geologi)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. (Marin geologi)
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2010 (English)In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, Vol. 29, no 25-26, 3518-3531 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-resolution geophysical evidence on the seafloor morphology and acoustic stratigraphy of the Yermak Plateau and northern Svalbard margin between 79°20′ and 81°30′N and 5° and 22°E is presented. Geophysical datasets are derived from swath bathymetry and sub-bottom acoustic profiling and are combined with existing cores to derive chronological control. Seafloor landforms, in the form of ice-produced lineations, iceberg ploughmarks of various dimensions (including features over 80 m deep and down to about 1000 m), and a moat indicating strong currents are found. The shallow stratigraphy of the Yermak Plateau shows three acoustic units: the first with well-developed stratification produced by hemipelagic sedimentation, often draped over a strong and undulating internal reflector; a second with an undulating upper surface and little acoustic penetration, indicative of the action of ice; a third unit of an acoustically transparent facies, resulting from debris flows. Core chronology suggests a MIS 6 age for the undulating seafloor above about 580 m. There are several possible explanations, including: (a) the flow of a major grounded ice sheet across the plateau crest from Svalbard (least likely given the consolidation state of the underlying sediments); (b) the more transient encroachment of relatively thin ice from Svalbard; or (c) the drift across the plateau of an ice-shelf remnant or megaberg from the Arctic Basin. The latter is our favoured explanation given the evidence currently at our disposal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 29, no 25-26, 3518-3531 p.
Keyword [en]
Arctic Ocean, glacial morphology, ice sheets
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-47298DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.002ISI: 000284724400013OAI: diva2:373561
Available from: 2010-12-07 Created: 2010-11-30 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mapping bathymetry: From measurement to applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping bathymetry: From measurement to applications
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Surface elevation is likely the most fundamental property of our planet. In contrast to land topography, bathymetry, its underwater equivalent, remains uncertain in many parts of the World ocean. Bathymetry is relevant for a wide range of research topics and for a variety of societal needs. Examples, where knowing the exact water depth or the morphology of the seafloor is vital include marine geology, physical oceanography, the propagation of tsunamis and documenting marine habitats. Decisions made at administrative level based on bathymetric data include safety of maritime navigation, spatial planning along the coast, environmental protection and the exploration of the marine resources.

This thesis covers different aspects of ocean mapping from the collection of echo sounding data to the application of Digital Bathymetric Models (DBMs) in Quaternary marine geology and physical oceanography. Methods related to DBM compilation are developed, namely a flexible handling and storage solution for heterogeneous sounding data and a method for the interpolation of such data onto a regular lattice. The use of bathymetric data is analyzed in detail for the Baltic Sea. With the wide range of applications found, the needs of the users are varying. However, most applications would benefit from better depth data than what is presently available. Based on glaciogenic landforms found in the Arctic Ocean seafloor morphology, a possible scenario for Quaternary Arctic Ocean glaciation is developed. Our findings suggest large ice shelves around parts of the Arctic Ocean during Marine Isotope Stage 6, 130–200 ka. Steered by bathymetry, deep water from the Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean flows over the central Lomonosov Ridge into the Eurasian Basin. This water mass is traced on its continuing way towards Greenland and the Fram Strait. At the Morris Jesup Rise, bathymetry plays an important role in the partial re-circulation of the water into the Amerasian Basin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 2011. 41 p.
Meddelanden från Stockholms universitets institution för geologiska vetenskaper, 344
Ocean and coastal mapping, Digital Bathymetric Model, Geographical Information System, Applications of bathymetric data, Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean, Seafloor morphology, Ocean circulation
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Marine Geoscience
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-57291 (URN)978-91-7447-309-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-06-08, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Submitted.

Available from: 2011-05-12 Created: 2011-05-05 Last updated: 2013-11-06Bibliographically approved

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