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Molecular systematics and morphological character evolution of the Condamineeae (Rubiaceae)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
University of Gothenburg, Department of Systematic Botany.
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Department.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
2010 (English)In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 97, no 12, 1961-1981 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

• Premise of the study: The Condamineeae have in previous molecular studies been shown to be part of an early-divergent cladewithin the subfamily Ixoroideae, together with the tribes Calycophylleae, and Hippotideae, and genera of the former Cinchoneae and Rondeletieae. Generic relationships within this clade have, however, remained largely unresolved

.• Methods: In this study, the systematics of the Condamineeae was further examined by phylogenetic reconstruction of six cpDNA regions and one nrDNA region using parsimony and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference. Morphological character evolution within the tribe was assessed by ancestral state reconstruction using likelihood optimization of characters onto Bayesian trees.

• Key results: Calycophylleae appears polyphyletic. “Hippotideae” is monophyletic but nested within the Condamineeae. The phylogenetic hypotheses presented support a resurrection of the genera Holtonia, Schizocalyx, and Semaphyllanthe. Furthermore, Bathysa is found to be polyphyletic, Tresanthera is found nested within Rustia, and the taxonomically disputed genus Dialypetalanthus is here shown to be sister to a BothriosporaWittmackanthus clade. Morphological ancestral state reconstructions indicate that protogyny have evolved at least two times within the tribe and that indehiscent fruits, loculicidal fruit dehiscence, and intrapetiolar stipules have evolved independently several times. The occurrence of calycophylls (leaf-like calyx lobes), poricidal anthers, and winged seeds also appear homoplastic within the tribe.

• Conclusions : A diagnosis and delimitation of the tribe Condamineeae is presented, with taxonomic proposals to synonymize Tresanthera and to transfer several species of Bathysa as well as Phitopis to a resurrected Schizocalyx.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 97, no 12, 1961-1981 p.
Keyword [en]
character evolution, Condamineeae, Dialypetalanthus, Hippotideae, Ixoroideae, Rubiaceae, seed morphology, systematics
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-48797DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000090ISI: 000284760800016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-48797DiVA: diva2:375981
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evolution and biodiversity of the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution and biodiversity of the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The phylogenetic relationships within subfamily Ixoroideae of the coffee family are investigated by phylogenetic reconstruction of molecular data, including regions of the chloroplast DNA (matK, ndhF, rbcL, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-G, and trnT-F), and the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS). The evolution of morphological characters within the group are inferred, with focus on characters used in classification. Ixoroideae have primarily been characterized by secondary pollen presentation, contorted corolla aestivation, and fleshy fruits. Secondary pollen presentation appears synapomorhic of a clade comprising the Ixoroideae crown group together with Retiniphyllum, whereas contorted corolla aestivation has evolved earlier and is synapomorphic for the crown group, Retiniphyllum, and Steenisia. Capsules likely represent a plesiomorphy from which various dry or fleshy indehiscent fruits have evolved independently in different clades. Reductions in seed number have also occured in many clades, none of which shows a secondary increase in the number of seeds.

Within Ixoroideae, the phylogeny and tribal delimitations of Alberteae and Condamineeae are studied in more detail. The former appears restricted to Alberta, Nematostylis, and Razafimandimbisonia, a new genus described here. The Condamineeae are a diverse tribe largely unresolved in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. Our results support a synonymization of both Calycophylleae and Hippotideae, because these are nested within the Condamineeae. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate that intrapetiolar stipules, poricidal anthers, and protogyny, otherwise uncommon characters in Rubiaceae, all have evolved more than once in the Condamineeae.

The rare genera Jackiopsis, Glionnetia, and Trailliaedoxa previously not included in molecular phylogenetic analyses, are all found nested within the Ixoroideae, and their systematic positions are discussed. The genera Bathysa, Calycophyllum, Elaeagia, and Rustia do not appear monophyletic. Consequently, resurrections of the names Holtonia, Schizocalyx, and Semaphyllanthe, and synonymizations of Phitopis (as Schizocalyx) and Tresanthera (as Rustia) are proposed. Also proposed are five new tribal names for clades that are not associated with any previously described tribes in the phylogenetic hypotheses presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Botany, Stockholm University, 2010. 28 p.
Keyword
Alberteae, character evolution, classification, Condamineeae, fruit evolution, Ixoroideae, phylogenetics, pollen presentation, Rubiaceae, systematics, taxonomy
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-48850 (URN)978-91-7447-198-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-01-14, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-12-22 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2010-12-14Bibliographically approved

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